1 Department of Chemistry, Sri Sairam Engineering College, Chennai-600044, India+Department of Chemistry, Presidency College, Chennai – 600005, Tamil Nadu, India

2 Department of Chemistry, Presidency College, Chennai – 600005, Tamil Nadu, India


Prosopis juliflora pods is a low cost material obtained from semi-arid region, was evaluated as adsorbent  for the removal of binary textile dye mixture (Gold HE-R and Green HE-4BD).  The effect of pH, concentration of dyes, adsorbent dose and contact time were obtained in batch adsorption technique.  The results were analyzed by isotherm models (Freundlich, Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson and Tempkin).  The results were in good agreement with Langmuir model and the Redlich-Peterson isotherm models. Langmuir monolayer adsorption quantity was found to be, 50.0 mg g-1 and 62.5 mg g-1 for Gold HE-R and Green HE-4BD, respectively.  Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intra particle diffusion and Tempkin kinetic models were used to fit the experimental data, it was well fitted into pseudo second order kinetics. Thermodynamic parameters such ∆Ho, ∆So and ∆Go were calculated, which shows the adsorption process was exothermic, decreasing randomness of solute and negative free energy reveals the feasibility of the reaction.  Energy of activation also predicted using Arrhenius equation, which was -16.569 and -20.710 kJ mol-1 for GHER and GHE4BD, respectively.  FT-IR and SEM analysis were also indicates the adsorption pattern effectively.


1. Hameed, K.S., P. Muthirulan and M.M. Sundaram, 2013. Adsorption of chromotrope dye onto activated carbons obtained from the seeds of various plants: equilibrium and kinetics studies. Arabian Journal of Chemistry.
2. Wasti, A. and M.A. Awan, 2016. Adsorption of textile dye onto modified immobilized activated alumina. Journal of the Association of Arab Universities for Basic and Applied Sciences, 20: 26-31.
3. Malik, A. and U. Taneja, 1994. Utilizing flyash for color removal of dye effluents. American Dyestuff Reporter, 83(10): 20-27.
4. Tsai, W., C. Chang, M. Lin, S. Chien, H. Sun and M. Hsieh, 2001. Adsorption of acid dye onto activated carbons prepared from agricultural waste bagasse by ZnCl 2 activation. Chemosphere, 45(1): 51-58.
5. Amin, N.K., 2008. Removal of reactive dye from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto activated carbons prepared from sugarcane bagasse pith. Desalination, 223(1-3): 152-161.
6. Noreen, S. and H.N. Bhatti, 2014. Fitting of equilibrium and kinetic data for the removal of Novacron Orange P-2R by sugarcane bagasse. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 20(4): 1684-1692.
7. Fathi, M., A. Asfaram and A. Farhangi, 2015. Removal of Direct Red 23 from aqueous solution using corn stalks: isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamic studies. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 135: 364-372.
8. Nawaz, S., H.N. Bhatti, T.H. Bokhari and S. Sadaf, 2014. Removal of Novacron Golden Yellow dye from aqueous solutions by low-cost agricultural waste: Batch and fixed bed study. Chemistry and Ecology, 30(1): 52-65.
9. Muthuraman, G. and S. Sasikala, 2014. Removal of turbidity from drinking water using natural coagulants. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 20(4): 1727-1731.
10. Nassar, M.M., 1999. Intraparticle diffusion of basic red and basic yellow dyes on palm fruit bunch. Water Science and Technology, 40(7): 133-139.
11. Hameed, B., A. Ahmad and K. Latiff, 2007. Adsorption of basic dye (methylene blue) onto activated carbon prepared from rattan sawdust. Dyes and Pigments, 75(1): 143-149.
12. Khaled, A., A. El Nemr, A. El-Sikaily and O. Abdelwahab, 2009. Treatment of artificial textile dye effluent containing Direct Yellow 12 by orange peel carbon. Desalination, 238(1-3): 210-232.
13. Doğan, M., H. Abak and M. Alkan, 2009. Adsorption of methylene blue onto hazelnut shell: kinetics, mechanism and activation parameters. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164(1): 172-181.
14. Ahmad, M.A., N.A.A. Puad and O.S. Bello, 2014. Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies of synthetic dye removal using pomegranate peel activated carbon prepared by microwave-induced KOH activation. Water Resources and industry, 6: 18-35.
15. Kalipci, E., S. Sahinkaya, M. Dortkol and S. Aras, 2016. Decolorization of Basic Textile Dyes using a Novel Adsorbent Modification Method: Ultrasonic-Acid Modification. International Journal of Environmental Research, 10(1): 31-40.
16. Sasikala S, Muthuraman.G., 2016. Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater Using Tribulus terrestris Herbal Plants Powder. Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment 7(1): 39-47.
17. Zhang, F., A. Yediler, X. Liang and A. Kettrup, 2004. Effects of dye additives on the ozonation process and oxidation by-products: a comparative study using hydrolyzed CI Reactive Red 120. Dyes and pigments, 60(1): 1-7.
18. Al-Asheh, S., F. Banat, R. Al-Omari and Z. Duvnjak, 2000. Predictions of binary sorption isotherms for the sorption of heavy metals by pine bark using single isotherm data. Chemosphere, 41(5): 659-665.
19. ŞAHİN, E., 2006. Interpretation of sorption kinetics for mixtures of reactive dyes on wool. Turkish Journal of Chemistry, 29(6): 617-625.
20. Raman, M.K., Muthuraman G, Application of Hyparrhenia hirta - A novel biosorbent for the effective removal of textile dyes. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 7(7): 2860-2866.
21. Freundlich, H., 1906. Over the adsorption in solution. J. Phys. Chem, 57(385): e470.
22. Lanowix, I., 1918. The adsorption of gases on plane surface of glass, mica and platinum. J. Am. chem. soc, 30: 1361.
23. Weber, T.W. and R.K. Chakravorti, 1974. Pore and solid diffusion models for fixed‐bed adsorbers. AIChE Journal, 20(2): 228-238.
24. Temkin, M. and V. Pyzhev, 1940. Kinetics of ammonia synthesis on promoted iron catalysts. Acta physiochim. URSS, 12(3): 217-222.
25. Redlich, O. and D.L. Peterson, 1959. A useful adsorption isotherm. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 63(6): 1024-1024.
26. Mall, I.D., V.C. Srivastava and N.K. Agarwal, 2006. Removal of Orange-G and Methyl Violet dyes by adsorption onto bagasse fly ash—kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses. Dyes and pigments, 69(3): 210-223.
27. Largergren, S., 1898. Zur theorie der sogenannten adsorption geloster stoffe. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens. Handlingar, 24(4): 1-39.
28. Ho, Y.-S. and G. McKay, 1999. Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes. Process biochemistry, 34(5): 451-465.
29. Doğan, M., Y. Özdemir and M. Alkan, 2007. Adsorption kinetics and mechanism of cationic methyl violet and methylene blue dyes onto sepiolite. Dyes and Pigments, 75(3): 701-713.
30. Sánchez-Martín, J., M. González-Velasco, J. Beltrán-Heredia, J. Gragera-Carvajal and J. Salguero-Fernández, 2010. Novel tannin-based adsorbent in removing cationic dye (Methylene Blue) from aqueous solution. Kinetics and equilibrium studies. Journal of hazardous materials, 174(1): 9-16.
31. Weber, W.J. and J.C. Morris, 1963. Kinetics of adsorption on carbon from solution. Journal of the Sanitary Engineering Division, 89(2): 31-60.
32. Raman, M. K. and G. Muthuraman, Decolorization of Red HE-7B by Hyparrhenia hirta-A better carbonization method.
33. Rajamohan, N., M. Rajasimman, R. Rajeshkannan and V. Saravanan, 2014. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the removal of Aluminum by modified Eucalyptus camaldulensis barks. Alexandria Engineering Journal, 53(2): 409-415.