Document Type : Research Note


1 Department of Environmental Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Biotechnology Research Lab., Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran

3 Department of civil Engineering, Qaemshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qaemshahr, Iran


In this study the performance of integrated fixed film activated sludge system (IFAS)  in Amol industrial wastewater treatment plant (Amol, Iran) in treatment of food industrial wastewater was investigated. In addition, kinetic coefficients were evaluated for the system. The capacity of this system was 1700 cubic meters per day; that includes different process comprising physical and biological treatment, disinfection, sludge thickening, digestion and dewatering. COD removal efficiency and kinetic coefficients including yield coefficient (Y), half saturation coefficient (Ks), maximum substrate utilization rate constant (k) and endogenous decay coefficient (kd) were evaluated. The obtained results demonstrated that except Ks other coefficient were in the normal range that was frequently reported for conventional activated sludge in the literature. The COD removal efficiency was about 98 to 99 percent. The results indicated that there is a direct relationship between the variation of kd and Ks with effluent substrate concentration; while, the relationship between rate constant (k) and effluent COD is reversed. Finally, the effect of increasing sludge retention time (SRT) on COD removal was also studied. It was concluded that COD removal increased with an increase active solid retention time to a certain point, behind that point there was no significant changes observed.


1.     Abdel_Kader, A.M. comparison study between integrated fixed film activated sludge (ifas), membrane bioreactor (mbr) and conventional activated sludge (as) PROCESSES. in 16th International Water Technology Conference, Istanbul, Turkey. 2012. Citeseer.
2.     Farrokhi, M., D. Ashrafi, E. Roohbakhsh and A. Yoonesi, 2014. Hospital Wastewater Treatment by Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge, Using Rice Husk as Fixed Media. Advances in Life Sciences, 4(3): 178-183.
3.     Jou, C.-J.G. and G.-C. Huang, 2003. A pilot study for oil refinery wastewater treatment using a fixed-film bioreactor. Advances in Environmental Research, 7(2): 463-469.
4.     Onnis-Hayden, A., D. Dair, C. Johnson, A. Schramm and A.Z. Gu, 2007. Kinetcis and nitrifying populations in nitrogen removal processes at a full-scale integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) plant. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, 2007(15): 3099-3119.
5.     Rutt, K., J. Seda and C.H. Johnson, 2006. Two year case study of integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) at Broomfield, CO WWTP. Proceedings of the water environment federation, 2006(13): 225-239.
6.     Paul, E., D.B. Wolff, J.C. Ochoa and R.H. Ribeiro da Costa, 2007. Recycled and virgin plastic carriers in hybrid reactors for wastewater treatment. Water environment research, 79(7): 765-774.
7.     Tchobanoglous, G., F.L. Burton and H. Stensel, Metcalf & Eddy,(2003).". Wastewater engineering: Treatment and reuse, 4.
8.     Henze, M., 1992. Characterization of wastewater for modelling of activated sludge processes. Water Science and Technology, 25(6): 1-15.
9.     Kovárová-Kovar, K. and T. Egli, 1998. Growth kinetics of suspended microbial cells: from single-substrate-controlled growth to mixed-substrate kinetics. Microbiology and molecular biology reviews, 62(3): 646-666.
10.   San, H.A. and R.M. Sykes, 1994. Mechanism of Biological Treatment in Plug-Flow or Batch Systems. Journal of Environmental Engineering-American Society of Civil Engineers, 120(1): 267.
11.   Al-Malack, M.H., 2006. Determination of biokinetic coefficients of an immersed membrane bioreactor. Journal of Membrane Science, 271(1): 47-58.
12.   Mrudula, S. and R. Anitharaj, 2011. Pectinase production in solid state fermentation by Aspergillus niger using orange peel as substrate. Glob. J. Biotechnol. Biochem, 6(2): 64-71.
13.   NAGHIZADEH, A., E. DERAKHSHANI and A.R. YARI, 2013. Study of Kinetic coefficients of a Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) for municipal wastewater treatment.
14.   Pala, A. and Ö. Bölükbaş, 2005. Evaluation of kinetic parameters for biological CNP removal from a municipal wastewater through batch tests. Process Biochemistry, 40(2): 629-635.
15.          Neill, G.J., High-rate biological treatment of wastewater at the Pantex facility1999.