Optimization of Process Parameters for Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Tyre using Reactivated Fluid Catalytic Cracking Catalyst

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria


This work investigated the optimization of process parameters for catalytic pyrolysis of waste tyre using reactivated spent Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalyst. The waste tyre pyrolysis used design expert software as the optimization tool for this study. A 3-factor level CCD with 20 experimental runs was used with temperature, time and catalyst as the input parameters while oil yield, density and viscosity were the output variables. Thereafter, an experimental validation of the optimized parameters, which were not among the original experimental runs, was carried out. Pyrolysis was also carried out at the optimized conditions with un-reactivated catalyst and without catalyst to ascertain the contributions of the catalyst and its reactivation. Based on the optimum parameters, 48.5 wt. % oil (0.79 g/ml and 2.05 cSt) was produced with the reactivated catalyst, 43.4 wt. % (0.86 g/ml and 3.52 cSt) was produced with spent catalyst, and 51 wt. % oil (0.95 g/ml and 4.24 cSt) was produced without catalyst.  The oil yield without catalyst was higher than with reactivated catalyst (R-CAT); but it however had the lowest fuel qualities while oil produced with catalyst in turn had higher quantity and quality compared to oil produced with catalyst. Therefore, the incorporation of density and viscosity of the oil in the optimization of the catalytic pyrolysis of waste tyre enhanced the improvement of yield and quality of the oil produced.


Main Subjects

  1. Miandad, R., Barakat, M.A., Rehan, M., Aburiazaiza, A.S., Gardy, J., and Nizami, A.S., 2018. Effect of advanced catalysts on tire waste pyrolysis oil. Journal on Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 116, pp. 542–552. Doi: 10.1016/j.psep.2018.03.024.
  2. Ramirez-canon, A., Munoz-Camelo, Y.F., and Singh, P, 2018. Decomposition of used tyre rubber by pyrolysis : enhancement of the physical properties of the liquid fraction using a hydrogen stream. Journal on Environment. 5, pp. 72. Doi: 10.3390/environments5060072.
  3. Kosivtsov, Y.Y., Chalov, K.V, Lugovoy, Y.V, Sulman, E.M., Molchanov, V.P., and Stepacheva, A.A., 2016. Pyrolysis of polymer waste in the presence of metal chlorides of iron subgroup. Chemical Engineering Transactions. 52, pp. 661–666. Doi: 10.3303/CET1652111.
  4. Rowhani, A., and Rainey, T.J., 2016. Scrap tyre management pathways and their use as a fuel: a review. Journal on Energy, 9(888), pp. 1–26. Doi: 10.3390/en9110888.
  5. UNEP, 2011. Revised technical guidelines for the environmentally sound management of used and waste pneumatic tyres. United nations Basel Convention, pp. 11–56.
  6. Ortis-Rodriguez, O.O, Ocampo-duque, W., and Duque-salazar, L.I., 2017. Environmental Impact of End-of-Life Tires : Life Cycle Assessment Comparison of Three Scenarios from a Case Study in Valle Del Cauca, Columbia. Journal on Energy. 10 (2117), pp. 1 -13. Doi: 10.3390/en10122117.
  7. Hazrat, M.A., Rasul, M.G., and Khan, M.M.K., 2015. A Study on thermo-catalytic degration for production of clean transport fuel and reducing plastis wastes. International Conference on Thermal Energy, 105, pp. 865–876.
  8. Laboy-nieves, E.N., 2014. Energy recovery from crap tires: a sustainable option for small islands like Puerto Rico. Journal on Sustainability, 6, pp. 3105–3121. Doi:  10.3390/su6053105.
  9. Osayi, J.I., and Osifo, P., 2019. Utilization of synthesized zeolite for improved properties of pyrolytic oil derived from used tire. International Journal of Chemical Engineering, pp. 1-12. Doi: 10.1155/2019/6149189.
  10. Somsri, S., 2018. Upgrading of Pyrolysis Oil. MSc Dissertation. KTH Institute of Technology.
  11. Nkosi, N., and Muzenda, E., 2014. A review and discussion of waste tyre pyrolysis and derived products. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering Vol II, London, U.K.
  12. Wang, C., Tian, X., Zhao, B., Zhu, L., and Li, S., (2019). Experimental Study on Spent FCC Catalysts for the Catalytic Cracking Process of Waste Tires. Proccesses, 7, pp. 335. Doi:  10.3390/pr7060335.
  13. Zhao, B., Wang, C., and Bian, H., 2021. A “ Wastes-Treat-Wastes ” Technology : Role and Potential of Spent Fluid Catalytic Cracking Catalysts Assisted Pyrolysis of Discarded Car Tires. Journal of Polymer, 13, pp. 27–32. Doi:  10.3390/polym13162732.
  14. Kasliwal, P.K., Prabhu, K.M., Kumar, B., and Das, B.P., 2015. Challenges and opportunities in disposal of spent FCC / RFCC catalyst. Indian Oil Corporation Research and Development Centre, pp. 1-9.
  15. Sadeghbeigi, R., 2000. Fluid catalytic cracking handbook: Design, operation and troubleshooting of FCC facilities. Second edition.
  16. Bayraktar, O., and Kugler, E.L., 2003. Coke content of spent commercial fluid catalytic cracking ( FCC) catalysts determination by temperature-programmed oxidation, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 71, pp. 867–874.
  17. Pu, X., Luan, J., and Shi, L., 2010. Reuse of Spent FCC Catalyst for Removing Trace Olefins from Aromatics. Bullettin of Korean Chemical Society, 33(8), pp. 2642–2646. Doi: 10.5012/bkcs.2012.33.8.2642.
  18. Kordoghli, S., Paraschiv, M., Khiari, B., and Zagrouba, F., 2016. Using Oxides of Alkaline-Earth Metals as Catalysts in Used Tyres Pyrolysis. International Journal of Chemical Technology Research, 9(08), pp. 359–365.
  19. Hossain, M.S., and Rahman, A.N.M.M., 2017. Catalytic Pyrolysis of Tire Wastes for Liquid Fuel. Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment, 8(1), pp. 88-94. Doi: 10.5829/IDOSI.IJEE.2017.08.01.14.
  20. M. S. Hossain, M.S., Abedeen, A., Karim, M.R., Moniruzzaman, M., and Hosen, M.J., 2017. Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Tires: The Influence of ZSM-Catalyst/Tire Ratio on Product. Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment, 8(3), pp. 189-193. Doi: 10.5829/ijee.2017.08.03.02.
  21. Noor, N.M., Shariff, A., and Abdullah, N., (2012). Slow Pyrolysis of Cassava Wastes for Biochar Production and Characterization. Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment 3 (Special Issue on Environmental Technology, pp. 60-65. Doi: 10.5829/idosi.ijee.2012.03.05.10.
  22. Istoto, E.H., and Saptadi, W.S., 2019. Production of Fuels from High Density Polyethylene and Low-Density Polyethylene Plastic Wastes via Pyrolysis Methods. Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment, 10(3), pp. 185-189. Doi: 10.5829/IJEE.2019.10.03.04
  23. Montgomery, D. C., 2017. Design and analysis of experiments. Ninth edition. John Wiley & Sons Ltd., New York.
  24. Kurinjimalar, C., Kavitha, G., Shamshath-Begum, S., Rajaram, G., Nagaraj, S., Senthilkumar, N., and Rengasamy, R., 2017. Optimization and Production of Botryococcus braunii Biomass Using Commercial Nutrients by Response Surface Methodology. Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment, 8(4), pp. 18-25. Doi: 10.5829/idosi.ijee.2017.08.01.04.
  25. Anju, G., Subha, B., Muthukumar, M., and Sangeetha, T., 2019. Application of response surface methodology for sago wastewater treatment by ozonation. Iranica Journal Journal of Energy and Environment, 10 (2), 96-103. Doi: 10.5829/IJEE.2019.10.02.05.
  26. Jaikumar, S., Bhatti, S.K., Srinivas, V., Padal, S.B., and Chandravathi, D., 2019. Application of Response Surface Methodology for the Prediction of Different Operating Parameters in the Production of Mesua Ferrea Oil Methyl Ester. Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment, 10(3), pp. 178-18. Doi: 10.5829/IJEE.2019.10.03.03.
  27. Ghareghie, H.T., Yazdi, M., Kebria, D.Y., and Aminirad, H., 2022. Analysis of Dense Non-aqueous Phase Liquid Contaminants Effects on Soil Permeability by Response Surface Methodology. Iranica Journal Journal of Energy and Environment, 13(2), pp. 141-150. Doi: 10.5829/IJEE.2022.13.02.05.
  28. Alipour, A., Zarinabadi, S., Azimi1, A., and Mirzaei M., 2022. Effective removal of heavy metal using cellulose nanocomposite adsorbents: response surface methodology. Iranica Journal Journal of Energy and Environment, 13(3), pp. 258-272. DOI: 10.5829/ijee.2022.13.03.0.
  29. Anderson, M.J., and Whitcomb, P.J., 2008. Response surface methods ( RSM) for peak process performance at the most robust operating conditions. Solid State Technology, 1–13.
  30. Waba, I.E., Abubakar, A., Yunusa, S., and Audu, N., 2020. Determination of optimum conditions for adsorption of Cr2 + from wastewater by reactivated spent FCC catalyst using response surface methodology. Applied Journal of Environmental Engineering Science, 6, pp. 66–78. Doi: 10.48422/IMIST.PRSM/ajees-v6i1.20095.
  31. Richard, B., 2007. Design expert 7 : introduction. Mathematics Learning Supprot Centre. pp. 1–10.
  32. Montgomery, D.C., 2001. Design and analysis of experiments. 5th Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., New York.
  33. www.statease.com., 2013. Multifactor RSM tutorial ( part 1 – the basics) response surface design and analysis. Design Expert 9 User Guide. pp. 1–53.
  34. Chen, T., Liu, S., Yu, J., Bikane, K., Chen, T., Ma, C., and Sun, L., 2018. Rubber pyrolysis: Kinetic modeling and vulcanization effects. Journal of Energy, 155, pp. 215–225. Doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2018.04.146.
  35. Butler, E., Devin, G., and McDonnell, K., 2011. Waste polyolefins to liquid fuels via pyrolysis: Review of commercial state-of-the-art. Journal of Waste and Biomass Valorization, 2, pp. 227-255. Doi: 10.1007/s12649-011-9067-5.
  36. Speight, J.G., 2008. Synthetic Fuels Handbook: Properties, Process, and Performance. McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.
  37. He, L.J., Zheng, S.Q., and Dai, Y.L., 2017. An FCC catalyst for maximaxing gasoline yield. Chemist and Chemical Engineering, 66(1-2), pp. 9-15. Doi: 10.15255/KUI.2016.028.
  38. Pavlova, A., Stratiev, D., Mitkova, M., Stanulov, K., Dishovsky, N., and Georgiev, K., 2015. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy for characterization of liquid products from pyrolysis of municipal waste and spent tyres. Acta Chromatographica, 27(4), pp. 637-655. Doi: 10.1556/AChrom.27.2015.4.5.