Uptake of Metals by Live Green Macroalgae Ulva reticulata in Industrial Wastewater of Bayan Lepas, Penang, Malaysia

Authors

1 Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies (CEMACS), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia

2 Iranian Fisheries Research Organization (IFRO), P. O. Box: 14155-6116, Tehran, Iran

3 School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the ability of Ulva reticulata (Chlorophyta) to remove Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, M n, M g, Pb, V, and Zn from industrial wastewater. A 24 h experiment was performed under laboratory and in situ conditions, which were set up in two places: (1) the industrial area in Bayan Lepas and (2) the coastal area close to Jerejak Island. The initial amounts of metals in U. reticulata were ranked as follows: M g > Fe > Zn  >  M n  >  Ni >  Cu  >  Cr  >  Co  >  Cd = Pb > V. However, after exposure to the experimental  conditions  for  24  h,  the sequence amounts  of  the metals  in  the tissue changed. Fe showed the highest uptake in situ with a maximum uptake of 869.0 ± 84.1 µg  g−1    dw.  M g  demonstrated  the  maximum  uptake  in  the  laboratory,  which  was 487.8 ± 130 µg g−1 dw. Cd presented the lowest uptake under both in situ and laboratory conditions, which was 0.04 ± 0.027 µg g−1  dw. The uptake capability  of U. reticulata depended  on  the  metal  concentration  in  water  and  under  experimental  conditions. Overall, this study revealed that U. reticulata can improve the quality of water discharged from industrial areas.

Keywords


1.   Chojnacka, K., 2010. Biosorption and bioaccumulation–the prospects       for       practical       applications.Environment International, 36: 299-307.

2.   Wang,  C.W,  X.  Hu,  M.L.  Chen,  and  Y.H  Wu,  2005.  Total concentrations  and fractions of Cd, Cr, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn in sewage sludge from municipal  and industrial wastewater treatment plants. Journal of hazardous materials, 119: 245-249.

3.   Sancey,  B.,T .  Giuseppe,  C.  Jérémie,  M.  Jean-François,  G. Sophie,B. Pierre-Marieand  C. Grégorio, 2011. Heavy metal removal  from  industrial  effluents  by sorption  on cross- linked starch: Chemical study and impact on water toxicity. Journal of environmental management, 92: 765-772.

4.   Bhuiyan,  M.A.H.,  N.I.  Suruvi, S.V. Dampae,  M.A. Islam, S.B. Quraishi,  G. Samuel  and S. Shigezuki,2011. Investigation of the possible sources of heavy metal contamination in lagoon and  canal  water  in the tannery  industrial  area in Dhaka, Bangladesh.   Environmental   monitoring  and  assessment,.175:633-649.

5.    Aziz, H.A., M.N. Adlan, and K.S. Ariffin, 2008. Heavy metals (Cd,  Pb,  Zn,  Ni,  Cu  and  Cr  (III))  removal  from  water  in Malaysia:    Post   treatment   by   high   quality   limestone. Bioresource Technology, 99: 1578-1583.

6.   Krishna,  A.K.,  M.  Satyanarayanan,   and  P.K.  Govil,  2009. Assessment    of   heavy   metal   pollution   in   water  using multivariate  statistical  techniques  in an industrial area: a case   study   from   Patancheru,   Medak   District,   Andhra Pradesh,  India. Journal  of hazardous  materials,  167: 366-373.

7.   Krishna,  A.K.  and  K.R.  Mohan,  2014.  Risk  assessment  of heavy  metals  and their  source distribution in waters of a contaminated  industrial  site.  Environmental  Science  and Pollution Research, 21: 3653-3669.

8.   Krishna,  A.K. and K.R. Mohan,  2013. Metal contamination and  their  distribution  in  different  grain size fractions  of sediments  in  an  industrial  development  area. Bulletin  of environmental contamination and toxicology, 90: 170-175.

9.   Lokhande, R., P. Singare, and D. Pimple, 2011. Quantification study of toxic heavy metals pollutants in sediment samples collected   from   Kasardi  River  flowing  along  the  Taloja industrial area of Mumbai, India. New York Science Journal, 4: 66-71.

10. Jakimska,    A.,    K.    Piotr,    S.   Krzysztof,    N.   Jacek,2011. Bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of marine animals. Part I: The role and impact of heavy metals on organisms. Polish Journal of Environment Study,20: 1117-1125.

11. Machender,   G.,  D.  Ratnakar,   S.T.  Malikharjuna   Rao,  B. Mangaraja    Rao   and   L.   Prasanna,   2014.   Heavy   metal contamination  in  sediments  of Balanagar  industrial  area, Hyderabad,   Andra   Pradesh,   India.   Arabian   Journal   of Geosciences, 7: 513-525.

12. Wood, A.K.H., A. Zaharuddin,  N.A. Shazili, Y. Rosnan and R. Carpenter,2004.  Metal diagenesis  and transport in coastal sediments   around   Penang   Island,   Malaysia.   Journal   of Nuclear and Related Technologies, 1: 1-24.

13. Karami,   H.,  2013.Heavy   metal  removal  from  water  by magnetite  nanorods.  Chemical  Engineering  Journal,  219: 209-216.

14. Halim,  A.A.,  H.A  Aziz,  M.A.M.  Johari,  K.S. Ariffin and M.N. Adlan,2010.  Ammoniacal  nitrogen  and COD removal from semi-aerobic  landfill leachate using a composite adsorbent: Fixed   bed  column   adsorption   performance.   Journal  of hazardous materials, 175: 960-964.

15. Ryan,   S.,   P.   McLoughlin,   and   O.   O'Donovan,   2012.   A comprehensive  study  of metal distribution  in three main classes of seaweed. Environmental Pollution, 167: 171-177.

16. Murphy,  V.,  S.A.M.  Tofail,  H.  Hughes,  and  P. MacLouglin, 2009. A novel study of hexavalent chromium detoxification by   selected   seaweed   species   using  SEM-EDX   and   XPS analysis. Chemical Engineering Journal, 148: 425-433.

17. Mehta, S. and J. Gaur, 2005. Use of algae for removing heavy metal   ions   from   wastewater:progress   and   prospects. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 25: 113-152.

18. Marinho-Soriano,    E.,   S.O.   Nunes,   M.A.A.   Carniero,   D.C. Periera,2009.     Nutrients'     removal     from    aquaculture wastewater    using   the   macroalgae    Gracilaria   birdiae. Biomass  & Bioenergy, 33: 327-331.

19. Flouty,  R.  and  G.  Estephane,  2012.  Bioaccumulation  and biosorption   of  copper   and  lead  by  a  unicellular   algae Chlamydomonas   reinhardtii   in  single  and  binary   metal systems:  A  comparative  study. Journal  of environmental management, 111: 106-114.

20. USEPA, EPA Method   Method 2007  Determination metals and  trace  elements   in  water  and  waste  by  inductivity coupled  plasma  -atomic  emission  spectrometry2007, US Environmental       Protection      Agency,      Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory.

21. Al-Shwafi,    N.A.    and    A.I.    Rushdi,    2008.Heavy    metal concentrations  in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from    coastal    waters    of   Yemen,   the   Gulf   of   Aden. Environmental Geology, 55: 653-660.

22. Wang, Z., X. Wang, and C. Ke, 2014.Bioaccumulation of trace metals   by  the  live  macroalga  Gracilaria  lemaneiformis. Journal of Applied Phycology, 1-9.

23. Tüzün, I., G. Bayramog ̆lü, E. Yalc ̧ın, G. Bas ̧aran, G.  C  elik, M.Y.   Arica,   2005.Equilibrium    and   kinetic   studies   on biosorption   of  Hg  (II),  Cd  (II)  and  Pb  (II)  ions   onto microalgae     Chlamydomonas      reinhardtii.     Journal     of Environmental Management, 77: 85-92.

24. Yuncu, B., F.D. Sanin, and U. Yetis, 2006. An investigation of heavy metal biosorption in relation to C/N ratio of activated sludge. Journal of hazardous materials, 137: 990-997.

25. Wang, J. and C. Chen, 2009. Biosorbents  for heavy metals removal and their future. Biotechnology Advances, 27: 195-226.

26. Gadd, G.M., 2009.Biosorption:  critical  review  of scientific rationale,  environmental  importance  and significance for pollution  treatment.  Journal  of Chemical  Technology  and Biotechnology, 84: 13-28.

27. DeBoer,  J.,  C.L.  Nutrient,  and  M.  Wynne,  The  biology  of seaweeds.  1981, by CS Lob ban and MJ Wynne (Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, 1981).