Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Chemical Engineering, P.M.B. 4000, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH), Ogbomoso, Nigeria

2 Department of Agricultural Engineering, P.M.B. 4000, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology (LAUTECH), Ogbomoso, Nigeria

3 National Board for Technology Incubation, Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, Maitama, Abuja, Nigeria


Utilization of locally sourced materials promote raw materials Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of palm kernel oil (PKO) with ethanol in the presence of non-synthetic heterogeneous catalyst (combination of KOH/metaKaolin). The process parameters investigated are catalyst (1-6 g), ethanol (10-25 wt% ethanol/%wt PKO), reaction temperature (30-120 oC) and reaction time, (60-100 min). These parameters were considered for optimization using Response Surface Methodology with Central Composite Design (CCD) for yield of biodiesel produced. The optimum yield of biodiesel of 96.00% was obtained using the optimized numerical values of 17.50% ethanol (by mass of PKO) and 3.50 g catalyst at 75.00 oC for 80.00 min. The viscosity (4.84 mm2/s), specific gravity (0.86), pour point (+5.00 oC), flash point (178.00 oC), and cloud point (+8.00 oC) of the biodiesel obtained at optimum condition compared favorably with ASTM standards. It was inferred from the research that biodiesel with suitable fuel properties can be produced from PKO using non-synthetic KOH impregnated on Kaolin with ethanol extracted from agricultural based raw materials.


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