Document Type : Technical Note


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology, Khulna-9203, Bangladesh

2 Ex-Undergraduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology, Khulna-9203, Bangladesh


The main focus of this study was to investigate the effect of fly ash content on the engineering properties of stabilized soils. To these attempts, two different types of fly ash, inorganic silt and Portland cement were collected. In the laboratory, the fly ash content of 10. 20 and 30%; inorganic silt of 10, 20 and 30% as well as cement content of 10 was used to stabilize soils. Result reveals that Atterberg limit decreases in relation to the increasing of fly ash content in stabilized soil at varying mixing proportions of fly ash content in soil. The different values of compressive strength of stabilized soils obtained from fly ash of different brand cement. In addition, the stabilized soil with cement content showed the highest value of compressive strength, whereas, stabilized soil with inorganic silt provides lowest value. The result reveals that the optimum content of fly ash was 20 and 30% for elephant and seven rings cement, respectively. The soil with organic content of 16% showed highest value of compressive strength, while, soil with organic content of 12.5% showed lowest value. Furthermore, the stabilized soils with fly ash showed comparatively the higher values of compressive strength than that of stabilized soils with inorganic silt content.


  1. Ansary, M.A.; Noor, M.A.; and Islam, M. 2006. “Effect of fly ash stabilization on geotechnical properties of Chittagong coastal soil.” Soil Stress-Strain Behavior: Measurements, Modeling and Analysis Geotechnical Symposium in Roma, March 16 & 17, 443–454.
  2. Basha, E.A.; Hashim, R.; Mahmud, H.B.; Muntohar, A.S. 2005. “Stabilization of residual soil with rice husk ash and cement.” Construction and Building Materials. 19(6), 448-453.
  3. Jawad, I.T.; Raihan, M.T.; Majeed, Z.H.; and Khan, T.A. 2014. “Soil Stabilization Using Lime: Advantages, Disadvantages and Proposing a Potential Alternative.” Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology 8 (4), 510-520.
  4. Keshawarz, M.S.; and Dutta, U. 1993. “Stabilization of south Texas soils with fly ash.” Fly Ash for Soil Improvement, ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication no. 36.
  5.  Huang, P.; Patel, M.; Santagata, M. C.; and Bobet, A. 2009. “Classification of Organic Soils.”FHWA/IN/JTRP-2008/02.
  6. Shubber, A.A.M.; Jose Francisco Rufino Diogo, R.; and Yi, L.X. (2008). “Low Cost Roads Construction by Soil Stabilization using Bituminous Materials in Al-Anbar Gypseous Sandy Soil.” Eighth International Conference of Chinese Logistics and Transportation Professionals (ICCLTP), 8-10, 2459-2466.
  7. Sridharan, A.; and Nagaraj, H.B. 2005. “Plastic limit and compaction characteristics of fne-grained soils.” Ground Improvement, 9(1), 17–22.
  8. Kaniraj, S.R.; and Havanagi, V.G. 1999. “Compressive strength of cement stabilized fly ash-soil mixtures.” Cement and Concrete Research, 29 (5), 673–677.
  9. Parsons, R.L.; and Kneebone, E. 2005. “Field performance of fly ash stabilised subgrades,” Ground Improvement, 9 (1), 33– 38.
  10. Choi, H.J. 2005. “Soil stabilization using optimum quantity of calcium chloride with class F fly ash.” M.Sc. Thesis. Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A&M University.
  11. Jafer, H.M. 2013. “Stabilization of Soft Soils Using Salts of Chloride.” Journal of Babylon University/Engineering Sciences, 21 (5), 1546-1554.
  12. Mahmoudi, M.; Niroumand, H.; and Kassim, K.A. 2014. “A Systematic Literature Review on Performance of Fly Ash  on the Strength Parameters in Cohesive Soils.” EJGE, 19, 17555-17572.
  13. Ali, R.M.E.; Karim, M.F.; and Rahman, M.Z. 2004. "Engineering Geology of Khulna Metropolitan City Area." Bangladesh Journal of Geology, 23, 83-92.
  14. Adhikari, D.K.; Roy, M.K.; Datta, D.D.; Roy, P.J.; Roy, D.K.; Malik, A.R.; and Alam, A.K.M.B. 2006. "Urban geology: a case study of Khulna City Corporation, Bangladesh." Journal of Life Earth Science, 1(2), 17-29.
  15. Mahamud, M.A.; Alamgir, M.; and Hossain, M.J. 2008. “Laboratory Investigation on the Behaviour of Improved Organic Soil of Khulna Region.”Sixth International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering. Paper No. 1.61, 1-7.
  16. Rafizul, I.M.; Alamgir, M.; and Bashar, M.A. 2009.“Strength and Compaction Properties of Reconstituted Organic Soils of a Selected Site in Khulna Region.” Proceedings of the Bangladesh Geotechnical Conference 2009, December 17, 2009, BGS-2009, Dept. of CE, BUET, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 109-115.
  17. Islam, M.S.; Siddique, A.; and Muqtadir, A. 2004. “Mechanical properties of soft organic Dhaka clay.” Journal of Civil Engineering, IEB, 32 (2), 143–161.
  18. Islam, S.; Hoque, N.; Uddin, M.; and Chowdhury, M. 2018. “Strength Development in Clay Soil Stabilized with Fly Ash.” Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering, 12 (2), 188-201.
  19. Ferguson, G. 1993. “Use of self-cementing fly ashes as a soil stabilization agent.” Fly ash for soil improvement (GSP 36), ASCE, New York.
  20. Patel, M.A.; and Patel, H.S. 2012. “A Review on Effects of Stabilizing Agents for Stabilization of Weak Soil.” Civil and Environmental Research, 2 (6), 1-7.
  21. Edil, T.B.; Acosta, H.A.; and Benson, C.B. 2006. “Stabilizing Soft Fine-Grained Soils with Fly Ash.” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 18 (2), 283-294.
  22. Vukićević, M.; Pujević, V.; Marjanović, M.; Jocković, S.; and Maraš-Dragojević, S. 2015. “Stabilization of fine-grained soils with fly ash.” Građevinar, 67 (8), 761-770.
  23. Li, L.; Edil, T.B.; and Benson, C.H. 2009. “Mechanical Performance of Pavement Geomaterials Stabilized with Fly Ash in Field Applications.” Coal Cobustion and Gasification Products, 1, 43-49
  24. Tastan, E.O.; Tuncer B. Edil, T.B.; Benson, C.H.; and Aydilek, A.H. 2011. “Stabilization of Organic Soils with Fly Ash.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 137 (9), 819–833.
  25. Ismaiel, H.A.H. 2006. “Treatment and improvement of the geotechnical properties of different soft fine-grained soils using chemical stabilization”.PhD Thesis, Institute of Geology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany.
  26. ASTM, 2010. “Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Determination of Water (Moisture) Content of Soil and Rock by Mass.”D2216, West Conshohocken, PA.
  27. ASTM, 2013, “Standard Test Method for pH of Soils.” D4972, West Conshohocken, PA.
  28. ASTM 2017b. “Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils.”D4318-e1, West Conshohocken, PA.
  29. ASTM. 2014a. “Standard test method for moisture, ash, and organic matter of peat and other organic soils.”D2974, West Conshohocken, PA.
  30. ASTM. 2014b. “Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer.”D854, West Conshohocken, PA.
  31. ASTM. 2012. “Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3)).”D698-e2, West Conshohocken, PA.
  32. ASTM (2017c). “Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete.”C618, West Conshohocken, PA.
  33. Yazici, S.; and Arel, H.S. 2012. “Effects of fly ash fineness on the mechanical properties of concrete.” Sadhana, 37 (3), 389–403.
  34. Tremblay, H.; Duchesne, J.; Locat, J.; and Lerouil, S. 2002. “Influence of the nature of organic compounds on fine soil stabilization with cement.”Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 39 (3), 535–546.
  35. ASTM. 2009. “Standard test method for unconfined compressive strength of compacted soil-lime mixtures.”D5102, West Conshohocken, PA.
  36. Sakr, M.A.; Shahin, M. A.; and Metwally, Y.M. 2009. “Utilization of lime for stabilizing soft clay soil of high organic content.” Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, 27(1), 105–113.
  37. Zha, F.; Liu, S.; Du Y.; and Cui, K. 2008. “Behavior of expansive soils stabilized with fly ash.” Natural Hazards, 47 (3), 509-523.
  38.  Sivapullaiah, P.V.; Prashanth, J.P.; and Sridharan, A. 1996.  “Effect of fly ash on index properties of black cotton soil.” Soils and Foundations, 36 (1), 97-103.
  39. Ramlakhan, B.; Kumar, S.A.; and Arora, T.R. 2013. “Effect of lime and fly ash on engineering properties of black cotton soil.”International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 3 (1), 535-541.
  40. Okagbue, C.O. 2007. “Stabilization of clay using woodash,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 19 (1), 14–18.
  41. Casagrande, A. 1932. “Research on the Atterberg Limits of Soils.”Public Roads. 13 (8), 121-136.
  42. 42. Dingwen, Z.; Libin, F.; Songyu, L.; and Yongfeng, D. (2013). “Experimental Investigation of Unconfined Compression Strength and Stiffness of Cement Treated Salt-Rich Clay.”Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 31 (4), 360-374.
  43. Neville, A.M. 1999. “Properties of Concrete.” 4th ed., Pearson, England, 137-138.