Civil & Environmental Engineering Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


The present study used the adsorption process of activated carbon produced from agricultural wastes and the photocatalytic process of nano-ZnO to break down complex compounds available in removing Direct Blue 71 (henceforth,  DB71). The two processes were done under three varied circumstances- adsorption/photocatalytic, photocatalytic/ adsorption, and simultaneous use of the processes. First, DB71 was exposed to activated carbon produced from walnut and almond shells and the efficiency achieved at equilibrium time (45 and 60 minutes) was 55 and 60 percent, respectively. Then, DB71 was exposed to different dosages of nano-ZnO to remove the dye completely. The result showed that amount of AC/ZnO in an optimum condition for two walnut and almond shell absorbents were 0.75/0.096 and1/0.096 g/L. Second, (photocatalytic/ adsorption) the complex compound of DB71 with a dosage of 0.024 g/L was broken down as a result of UV radiation. The experiment proceeded with different dosages of walnut and almond shells after achieving the efficiency of 50% in removing DB71 in the second process. The amounts of AC/ZnO were 0.75/0.024 and 1/0.024 for walnut and almond shells respectively under the optimum condition for the second process. In the third process advantages of the simultaneous use of photocatalytic and adsorption processes were taken in which different dosages of AC/ ZnO were used. Given the smaller dosages of nano-ZnO and less dye removal time, amounts of 0.75/ 0.288 g/L and 0.75/0.288 g/L were measured for walnut and almond shells. The findings show that photocatalytic/adsorption process was the more optimal process because of the less dosages of nano-ZnO, efficiency of removing DB71 and shorter dye removing time. Furthermore, the effect of the intensity of UV radiant on the efficiency and time of removing DB71 was also examined. The experiment revealed that removing COD in the optimum conditions were 47.22 and 49.6 and 62.23 and 63.15 percent using walnut and almond shell respectively both in the first experiment and the simulations use of adsorption and photocatalytic processes after 30 hours. While, in the second experiment (photocatalytic/ adsorption) 42.21 and 39.18 percent of COD were removed using walnut and almond shell respectively after 30 hours. The LC-mass test of photocatalytic/adsorption process also showed the degradation of DB 71 complex compounds.


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