Department of Civil Engineering, Khulna University of Engineering & Technology, Khulna, Bangladesh


The principle objective of this study was to evaluate the soil quality and the level of contamination of soil by heavy metals adapting various  developed  index  in  a  selected  waste disposal  site  at  Rajbandh,  Khulna,  Bangladesh. To theses endeavor, ten soil samples were collected from the selected locations and then the relevant elements of Al, Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd, As, Co, Sb, Sc and Hg were measured and monitored using standard method. To estimate the contamination situation of soil, contamination factor (CF), enrichment factor (EF)  and  geo-accumulation  index  (Igeo)  and  potential  ecological  risk  index  (PERI)  were  computed  using geological background values. In addition, for assessing soil quality, Pearson's correlation coefficients analysis was also performed. Furthermore, this study revealed that the values of CF and Igeo in soils around the waste disposal area affected from the contamination of heavy metals mostly by Pb, Cd and Sb. In contrast, Pearson's correlation indicated that the sources of metals are almost the same and these heavy metals might be derived from the waste accumulation activity. Dump sites have great potential for energy extraction if the high valued compounds to be extracted.


1.     Islam, M.S., T. Tusher, M. Mustawa and S. Mamun, 2012. Investigation of soil quality and heavy metal concentrations from a waste dumping site of Konabari industrial area at Gazipur in Bangladesh. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 2(1): 1-7.
2.     Rafizul, I.M., M.K. Howlader and M. Alamgir, 2012. Construction and evaluation of simulated pilot scale landfill lysimeter in Bangladesh. Waste management, 32(11): 2068-2079.
3.     Murtaza, M.G., 2002. Solid waste management in Khulna city. Plan Plus, 1(1): 6-15.
4.     Scott, J., D. Beydoun, R. Amal, G. Low and J. Cattle, 2005. Landfill management, leachate generation, and leach testing of solid wastes in Australia and overseas. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 35(3): 239-332.
5.     Esakku, S., O.P. Karthikeyan, K. Joseph and R. Nagendran, 2008. Heavy metal fractionation and leachability studies on fresh and partially decomposed municipal solid waste. Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management, 12(2): 127-132.
6.     Guo, G., Q. Zhou and L.Q. Ma, 2006. Availability and assessment of fixing additives for the in situ remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils: a review. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 116(1): 513-528.
7.     Likuku, A.S., K.B. Mmolawa and G.K. Gaboutloeloe, 2013. Assessment of heavy metal enrichment and degree of contamination around the copper-nickel mine in the Selebi Phikwe Region, Eastern Botswana. Environment and Ecology Research, 1(2): 32-40.
8.     Rahman, M.M., K.R. Sultana and M.A. Hoque, 2008. Suitable sites for urban solid waste disposal using GIS approach in Khulna city, Bangladesh. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences (Pakistan).
9.     Sahu, A.K. Present scenario of municipal solid waste (MSW) dumping grounds in India. in Proceedings of the international conference on sustainable solid waste management. 2007.
10.   Ajah, K.C., J. Ademiluyi and C.C. Nnaji, 2015. Spatiality, seasonality and ecological risks of heavy metals in the vicinity of a degenerate municipal central dumpsite in Enugu, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 13(1): 15.
11.   Sharma, S., N. Sehkon, S. Deswal and S. John, 2009. Transport and fate of copper in soils. International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 1(1): 19-39.
12.   Sakan, S.M., D.S. Đorđević, D.D. Manojlović and P.S. Predrag, 2009. Assessment of heavy metal pollutants accumulation in the Tisza river sediments. Journal of environmental management, 90(11): 3382-3390.
13.   Kalender, L. and S.Ç. Uçar, 2013. Assessment of metal contamination in sediments in the tributaries of the Euphrates River, using pollution indices and the determination of the pollution source, Turkey. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 134: 73-84.
14.   Ackermann, F., 1980. A procedure for correcting the grain size effect in heavy metal analyses of estuarine and coastal sediments. Environmental Technology, 1(11): 518-527.
15.   Taylor, S., 1964. Abundance of chemical elements in the continental crust: a new table. Geochimica et cosmochimica acta, 28(8): 1273-1285.
16.   Wei, B. and L. Yang, 2010. A review of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils, urban road dusts and agricultural soils from China. Microchemical Journal, 94(2): 99-107.
17.   Hakanson, L., 1980. An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach. Water research, 14(8): 975-1001.
18.   Douay, F., A. Pelfrêne, J. Planque, H. Fourrier, A. Richard, H. Roussel and B. Girondelot, 2013. Assessment of potential health risk for inhabitants living near a former lead smelter. Part 1: metal concentrations in soils, agricultural crops, and homegrown vegetables. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 185(5): 3665-3680.
19.   Nabholz, J.V., 1991. Environmental hazard and risk assessment under the United States toxic substances control act. Science of the total environment, 109: 649-665.
20.   Singh, A., R.K. Sharma, M. Agrawal and F.M. Marshall, 2010. Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of foodstuffs from the wastewater irrigated site of a dry tropical area of India. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(2): 611-619.
21.   Patil, V. and P. Patil, 2010. Physicochemical Analysis of Selected Groundwater Samples of Amalner Town inJalgaon District, Maharashtra, India. Journal of Chemistry, 7(1): 111-116.