Environmental Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia


The effects of various carbonization parameters on the COD reduction of Rhodamine B dye aqueous solutions using carbonized Elaeis guineensis frond fiber (EGFF) chars have been studied experimentally. The adsorbent with the particle size of <45 µm has been carbonized at temperature from 500-900 oC with carbonization duration of 1-3 h at a heating rate of 10-30 oC/min and nitrogen gas flow rate of 100-500 cm^3/min. Carbonization temperature, carbonization duration, heating rate and nitrogen gas flow rate were significantly affecting the carbonization process. Statistical analysis-response surface methodology (RSM)- face centered composite design (FCCD) was used to obtain the optimal carbonization conditions. The optimum condition for carbonization of EGFF was obtained at carbonization temperature of 899 oC, carbonization duration of 2.7 h, heating rate of 10 nitrogen flow rate of 243 cm3/min with 98.88 % of COD reduction of Rhodamine B.


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