1 Faculty of Chemical Engineering, UniversitiTeknologi MARA Pulau Pinang, 13500 PermatangPauh, Penang, Malaysia

2 School of Civil Engineering, UniversitiSains Malaysia, 14300 NibongTebal, Penang, Malaysia


In this study, the adsorption behavior of Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) from aqueous solution by using raw and modified clinoptilolites were investigated. In the experimental work, raw clinoptilolite (R-CL) was treated with Zn(NO3)2  in ethanol and produced zinc-grafted clinoptilolite (Zn-CL).The adsorption experiments were carried out under different conditions of initial concentration (25-250 
mg/L),  adsorption  time (0-2h),  solution  pH  (2-12),  and  temperature  (300-353  K)  to  determine optimum conditions for the highest RBBR  removal.  The influence of  these parameters on  the adsorption capacity was studied using the batch process. The results indicated that the solution pH was observed to be a key factor of the RBBR adsorption process. The maximum dye adsorption was achieved with Zn-CL adsorbent at pH~6 and the corresponding adsorption capacity was found to be 42.2 mg/g, which was higher than R-CL (12.5 mg/g). Lower adsorption capacity of RBBR was found by Zn-CL between pH 8 and 12 opposite to R-CL which showed a marginal increase in adsorption capacity within the same pH range. The results proved that Zn-CL which is a modified clinoptilolite is an effective adsorbent for the removal of RBBR from aqueous solution.


1.   Akgül, M., 2014. Enhancement of the anionic dye adsorption capacity of clinoptiloliteby Fe3+-grafting. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 267: 1-8.
2.   Senthilkumaar,    S.,    P.    Kalaamani,    K.    Porkodi,    P.    R. Varadarajanand and C. V. Subburaam, 2006. Adsorption of dissolved Reactive red dye from aqueous phase onto activated carbon    prepared    from    agricultural    waste.    Bioresource Technology, 97: 1618-1625.
3.   Santhy, K. and P. Selvapathy, 2006. Removal of reactive dyes from wastewater by adsorption on coir pith activated carbon, Bioresource Technology, 97: 1329-1336.
4.   Malamis, S. and E. Katsou, 2013. A review on zinc and nickel adsorption on natural and modified zeolite, bentonite and vermiculite: Examination of process parameters, kinetics and isotherms. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 252: 428-461.
5.   Wang,  S.  and  Y.  Peng,  2010.  Natural  zeolites  as  effective adsorbents in water and wastewater treatment. Chemical Engineering Journal, 156: 11-24.
6.   Dong,  J., Z.  Xu and S. M. Kuznicki, 2009. Magnetic multi- functional nano composites for environmental applications. Advanced Functional Materials, 19(8): 1268-1275.
7.   Kanthasamy, R., K. Barquist and S.C. Larsen, 2008. Transition metal and organic function-alization of hollow zeolite structures. Microporous Mesoporous Materials, 113: 554-561.
8.     Innocenzi, P., P. Falcaro, D. Grosso and F. Babonneau, 2003. Order-disorder  transitions and  evolution  of  silica  structure  in self-assembled mesostructured silica films studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 107: 4711-4717.
9.   Li, F., 2013. Layer-by-layer loading iron onto mesoporous silica surfaces: synthesis, characterization and application for As(V) removal. Microporousand Mesoporous Materials, 171: 139-146.
10. Salgado-Gómez, N., M.G. Macedo-Miranda and M.T. Olguín, 2014. Chromium VI adsorption from sodium chromate and potassium dichromate aqueous systems by hexadecyltrimethylammonium-modified       zeolite-rich       tuff. Applied Clay Science, 95: 197-204.
11. Lin, L., Z. Lei, L. Wang, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, C. Wan, D. Lee, J. H. Tay, 2013. Adsorption mechanisms of high-levels of ammonium onto natural and NaCl-modified zeolites. Separation and Purification Technology, 103: 15-20.
12. Li, Y., N. Sun, L. .Li, N. Zhao, F. Xiao, W. Wei, Y. Sun and W. Huang, 2013. Grafting of amines on ethanol-extracted SBA-15 for CO2 adsorption. Materials, 6: 981-999.
13. Greggand, S. J.  and  K.S.W.  Sing, 1982.  Adsorption,  Surface Area and Porosity, 2nd ed., Academic Press, London.
14. Nethaji, S., A. Sivasamy, G. Thennarasu , and S. Saravanan , 2010. Adsorption of Malachite Green dye onto activated carbon derived  from Borassus aethiopum flower biomass,  Journal of Hazardous Materials, 181: 271-280.
15. Ogunmodede, O. T., A. A. Ojo, E. Adewole and O. L. Adebayo, 2015. Adsorptive removal of anionic dye from aqueous solutions by mixture of Kaolin and Bentonite clay: Characteristics, isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment 6(2): 147-153.
16. Khattriand, S. D. and M.K. Singh, 2009. Removal of malachite green from dye wastewater using neem sawdust by adsorption. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 167: 1089-1094.
17. Mahalakshmi,  K.,  S.K.  Suja,  K.  Yazhini,  S. Mathiya  and  G. Jayanthi Kalaivani, 2014. A Novel Approach to Investigate Adsorption  of  Crystal  Violet  from  Aqueous  Solutions  Using Peels  of  Annona  squamosal.  Iranica  Journal  of  Energy  and Environment 5(2): 113-123.
18. Ergene, A., K. Ada, S. Tan and H. Katırcıoğlu, 2009. Removal of  Remazol  Brilliant  Blue  R  dye  from  aqueous  solutions by adsorption onto immobilized cenedesmus quadricauda: Equilibrium and kinetic modeling studies. Desalination, 249(3): 1308.-1314.
19. Vimonses, V., S. Lei, B. Jin, C. W. K. Chow and C. Saint, 2009. Adsorption  of congo  red  bythree  Australian  kaolins.  Applied Clay Science, 43: 465–472.
20. Baskaralingam, P., M. Pulikesi, D. Elango, V. Ramamurthi and S.  Sivanesan,  2006.  Adsorption  of  acid  dye  onto organobentonite. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 128: 138-144.
21. Hamdaoui, O., F. Saoudi, M. Chiha and E. Naffrechoux, 2008. Sorption of malachite green by a novel sorbent, dead leaves of plane tree: Equilibrium and kinetic modeling. Chemical Engineering Journal, 143: 73-84.
22. Hameed, B. H. and A. A. Ahmad, 2009. Batch adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution by garlic peel, an agricultural waste biomass. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 164: 870-875.
23. Marinovic, V., M. Ristic and M. Dostanic, 2005. Dynamic adsorption  of  trinitrotoluene  on  granular  activated  carbon. Journal of Hazardous Materials B, 117:121-128.
24. Langmuir, I, 1918. The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass,  mica  and  platinum.  Journal  of  American  Chemical Society, 40: 1361-1403.
25. Freundlich,  H.M.F.,  1906.  Over  the  adsorption  in  solution. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 57: 385-470.
26. Langergren, S., and B. K. Svenska, 1898. Zur theorie der sogenannten adsorption geloester stoffe, Veternskapsakad Handlingar, 24 (4), 1-39.
27. Ho, Y.S., and G., Mckay, 1998. Sorption of dye from aqueous solution by peat, Chemical Engineering Journal, 70, 115-124.