Performance Analysis of a Novel Cross-flow Solar Air Heater with Square Perforated Absorber Plate: An Experimental Study

Document Type : Original Article


1 Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Higher Education Complex of Bam, Bam, Iran

2 Industrial Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Higher Education Complex of Bam, Bam, Iran

3 Mathematics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Computing, Higher Education Complex of Bam, Bam, Iran


The current study introduces and analyzes a novel square cross-flow perforated solar air heater (SAH). Since the convection mechanism in SAHs is weak, numerous methods have been suggested to address this problem and improve thermal efficiency. Perforations and cross-flow configuration generate high turbulency and, consequently, high convection rate resulted. Hence these methods have been applied to enhance thermal efficiency. To achieve this goal, an experimental setup was fabricated and tested at outdoor conditions for two air mass flow rates (mair) of 0.015 kg/s and 0.03 kg/s while several sensors monitored the collector’s heat dynamics and ambient conditions. The obtained results illustrate that outlet temperature reaches the peak values of 38 oC and 34 oC, which is only 6 oC and 7 oC lower than the maximum absorber temperature. This crucial issue proves a high heat exchange rate in the fabricated SAH that causes the absorber temperature to approach the outlet temperature due to high turbulency. The strong convection mechanism in the fabricated SAH improves daily thermal efficiency, in which its value reaches nearly 78.6% for the mass flow rate of 0.03 kg/s. In conclusion, the square cross-flow perforated SAH is an economy, applicable, compact collector, ensuring high thermal efficiency.


Main Subjects

  1. Hayati, M., S. Ranjbar, M.R. Abdar, M. Molaei Nasab, S. Homayounmajd and M. Esmaeili Shayan, 2023. A Comparative Analysis of Solar Energy Strategies in Middle East with Rich Fossil Resources. Iranian (Iranica) Journal of Energy & Environment, 14(3), pp. 271-288. Doi:10.5829/ijee.2023.14.03.09
  2. Goel, V., V. Hans, S. Singh, R. Kumar, S.K. Pathak, M. Singla, S. Bhattacharyya, E. Almatrafi, R. Gill and R. Saini, 2021. A Comprehensive Study on the Progressive Development and Applications of Solar Air Heaters. Solar Energy, 229, pp. 112-147. Doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2021.07.040
  3. Ifrim, V.C., L.D. Milici, P. Atănăsoae, D. Irimia and R.D. Pentiuc, 2022. Future Research Tendencies and Possibilities of Using Cogeneration Applications of Solar Air Heaters: A Bibliometric Analysis. Energies, 15(19), pp. 7114. Doi: 10.3390/en15197114
  4. Khimsuriya, Y.D., D. Patel, Z. Said, H. Panchal, M.M. Jaber, L. Natrayan, V. Patel and A. El-Shafay, 2022. Artificially Roughened Solar Air Heating Technology-a Comprehensive Review. Applied Thermal Engineering, 118817. Doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2022.118817
  5. Gandjalikhan Nassab, S. and M. Moein Addini, 2021. Performance Augmentation of Solar Air Heater for Space Heating Using a Flexible Flapping Guide Winglet. Iranian (Iranica) Journal of Energy & Environment, 12(2), pp. 161-172. Doi: 10.5829/ijee.2021.12.02.09
  6. Arunkumar, H., K.V. Karanth and S. Kumar, 2020. Review on the Design Modifications of a Solar Air Heater for Improvement in the Thermal Performance. Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, 39100685. Doi: 10.1016/j.seta.2020.100685
  7. Sahu, M.K., V.K. Gorai and B.C. Saha, 2023. Applications of Extended Surfaces for Improvement in the Performance of Solar Air Heaters—a Detailed Systematic Review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, pp. 1-19. Doi: 10.1007/s11356-023-26360-3
  8. Yadav, A.S., A. Agrawal, A. Sharma, S. Sharma, R. Maithani and A. Kumar, 2022. Augmented Artificially Roughened Solar Air Heaters. Materials Today: Proceedings. Doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2022.02.548
  9. Singh, V.P., S. Jain and J. Gupta, 2022. Performance Assessment of Double-Pass Parallel Flow Solar Air Heater with Perforated Multi-V Ribs Roughness—Part B. Experimental Heat Transfer, 35(7), pp. 1059-1076. Doi: 10.1080/08916152.2021.2019147
  10. Singh, V.P., S. Jain, A. Karn, G. Dwivedi, A. Kumar, S. Mishra, N.K. Sharma, M. Bajaj, H.M. Zawbaa and S. Kamel, 2022. Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Correlations Development for Double Pass Solar Air Heater Artificially Roughened with Perforated Multi-V Ribs. Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 39102461. Doi: 10.1016/j.csite.2022.102461
  11. Arunkumar, H., S. Kumar and K.V. Karanth, 2022. Performance Enhancement of a Solar Air Heater Using Rectangular Perforated Duct Inserts. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 34101404. Doi: 10.1016/j.tsep.2022.101404
  12. Farzan, H., M. Mahmoudi and E. Hasan Zaim, 2023. Thermal Analysis of New Solar Air Heater with Inclined Perforated Absorber Plates: Experimental Study. Iranian (Iranica) Journal of Energy & Environment, 14(2), pp. 189-196. Doi: 10.5829/ijee.2023.14.02.11
  13. Sethi, M., A.K. Singh, R. Tripathi, A. Kumar, S. Kumar, A. Thakur, B. Goel, T. Kashyap and V.K. Sharma, 2023. Influence of Distinct Baffles Type Turbulence Promoter on the Thermohydraulic Efficiency of Solar Air Heater: A Comprehensive Review. Materials Today: Proceedings, 72, pp. 1275-1283. Doi: 10.1016/j.matpr.2022.09.299
  14. El-Said, E.M., M. Abou Al-Sood, E. Elsharkawy and G.B. Abdelaziz, 2022. Tubular Solar Air Heater Using Finned Semi-Cylindrical Absorber Plate with Swirl Flow: Experimental Investigation. Solar Energy, 236, pp. 879-897. Doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2022.03.054
  15. Aouissi, Z., F. Chabane, M.-S. Teguia, N. Belghar, N. Moummi and A. Brima, 2022. Heat Exchange Optimization by Adding Baffles to Streaming Duct of Solar Air Collector. Iranian (Iranica) Journal of Energy & Environment, 13(4), pp. 349-353. Doi: 10.5829/ijee.2022.13.04.04
  16. Kumar, P.G., V. Vigneswaran, K. Balaji, S. Vinothkumar, R. Prabakaran, D. Sakthivadivel, M. Meikandan and S.C. Kim, 2022. Augmented V-Corrugated Absorber Plate Using Shot-Blasting for Solar Air Heater–Energy, Exergy, Economic, and Environmental (4e) Analysis. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 165, pp. 514-531. Doi: 10.1016/j.psep.2022.07.036
  17. Sahu, M.K., M. Kharub and M.M. Matheswaran, 2022. Nusselt Number and Friction Factor Correlation Development for Arc-Shape Apex Upstream Artificial Roughness in Solar Air Heater. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(43), pp. 65025-65042. Doi: 10.1007/s11356-022-20222-0
  18. Nanjundappa, M., 2021. Nusselt Number and Friction Factor Correlations for the Solar Air Heater Duct Furnished with Artificial Cube Shaped Roughness Elements on the Absorber Plate. Heat and Mass Transfer, 57(12), pp. 1997-2013. Doi: 10.1007/s00231-021-03067-0
  19. Shetty, S.P., A. Paineni, M. Kande, N. Madhwesh, N.Y. Sharma and K.V. Karanth, 2020. Experimental Investigations on a Cross Flow Solar Air Heater Having Perforated Circular Absorber Plate for Thermal Performance Augmentation. Solar Energy, 197, pp.254-265. Doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2020.01.005
  20. Shetty, S.P., N. Madhwesh and K.V. Karanth, 2021. Numerical Analysis of a Solar Air Heater with Circular Perforated Absorber Plate. Solar Energy, 215416-433. Doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2020.12.053
  21. Saravanan, A., M. Murugan, M.S. Reddy, P. Ranjit, P. Elumalai, P. Kumar and S.R. Sree, 2021. Thermo-Hydraulic Performance of a Solar Air Heater with Staggered C-Shape Finned Absorber Plate. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 168107068. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2021.107068
  22. Hedau, A. and R. Saini, 2023. Thermo-Hydraulic Performance of Double Pass Solar Air Heater Duct Having Semi-Circular Tubes and Perforated Blocks as Artificial Roughness. Renewable Energy, 205, pp.543-562. Doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2023.01.087
  23. Farzan, H. and E.H. Zaim, 2023. Thermal Analysis of a New Double-Pass Solar Air Heater Using Perforated Absorber and Porous Materials: An Experimental Study. Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, 38101680. Doi: 10.1016/j.tsep.2023.101680
  24. Eiamsa-Ard, S., A. Phila, M. Pimsarn, N. Maruyama and M. Hirota, 2023. Heat Transfer Mechanism and Thermal Performance of a Channel with Square-Wing Perforated Transverse Baffles Installed: Effect of Square-Wing Location. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, pp. 1-15. Doi: 10.1007/s10973-022-11937-w
  25. Farzan, H. and E.H. Zaim, 2023. Study on Thermal Performance of a New Combined Perforated Metallic/Asphalt Solar Air Heater for Heating Applications: An Experimental Study. Solar Energy, 249, pp. 485-494. Doi: 10.1016/j.solener.2022.12.008
  26. Kline, S.J., 1963. Describing Uncertainties in Single-Sample Experiments. Mechanical Engineering, 75, pp. 3-8.