Document Type : Original Article

**Authors**

Department of Civil Engineering, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran

**Abstract**

Tall buildings are subject to wind loads as one of the effective lateral loads. An analysis of the effect of wind on Milad Tower is presented in this research. The wind tunnel testing results and numerical modelling implemented in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) using ANSYS software. For the numerical simulation, the K-epsilon model has been used. The study evaluated the flow around the tower in several deformation states and compared it with a model where the tower is modeled rigidly in the wind tunnel. The maximum coefficient of negative pressure (suction) at the top of the tower structure equals to -1.95, which occurs at q =90^{o}, and the maximum coefficient of the positive pressure equals _{+}1. Since the buildings near the tower are located a short distance from the tower, the shed's structure, which is located near the tower, has also been investigated. With the aid of Tecplot software. The wind pressure coefficients obtained from the wind tunnel test were plotted. As part of the wind loading analysis in the single-span and two-span shed models, the model is rotated with a step of 5^{o} relative to the direction of wind application, and wind pressure is recorded.

**Keywords**

**Main Subjects**

- Blocken, B., 2014. 50 years of Computational Wind Engineering: Past, present and future.
*Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics*, 129, pp.69–102. Doi: 10.1016/j.jweia.2014.03.008 - Baker, C.J., 2007. Wind engineering—Past, present and future.
*Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics*, 95(9–11), pp.843–870. Doi: 10.1016/j.jweia.2007.01.011 - Su, N., Peng, S., Hong, N., and Hu, T., 2020. Wind tunnel investigation on the wind load of large-span coal sheds with porous gables: Influence of gable ventilation.
*Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics*, 204, pp.104242. Doi: 10.1016/j.jweia.2020.104242 - Yang, Q., Gao, R., Bai, F., Li, T., and Tamura, Y., 2018. Damage to buildings and structures due to recent devastating wind hazards in East Asia.
*Natural Hazards*, 92(3), pp.1321–1353. Doi: 10.1007/s11069-018-3253-8 - Wilhelm, E., Ford, M., Coelho, D., Lawler, L., Ansourian, P., Alonso-Marroquin, F., and Tahmasebinia, F., 2016. Dynamic analysis of the Milad Tower. In: AIP Conference Proceedings. p 020006
- Yahyai, M., Daryan, A.S., Ziaei, M., and Mirtaheri, S.M., 2011. Wind effect on milad tower using computational fluid dynamics.
*The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings*, 20(2), pp.177–189. Doi: 10.1002/tal.522 - Katsumura, A., Tamura, Y., and Nakamura, O., 2007. Universal wind load distribution simultaneously reproducing largest load effects in all subject members on large-span cantilevered roof.
*Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics*, 95(9–11), pp.1145–1165. Doi: 10.1016/j.jweia.2007.01.020 - YC, K., SW, Y., DJ, C., and JY, S., 2019. Characteristics of wind pressures on retractable dome roofs and external peak pressure coefficients for cladding design.
*Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics*, 188, pp.294–307. Doi: 10.1016/j.jweia.2019.02.016 - Sadeghi, H., Heristchian, M., Aziminejad, A., and Nooshin, H., 2018. CFD simulation of hemispherical domes: structural flexibility and interference factors.
*Asian Journal of Civil Engineering*, 19(5), pp.535–551. Doi: 10.1007/s42107-018-0040-5 - Sadeghi, H., Heristchian, M., Aziminejad, A., and Nooshin, H., 2017. Wind effect on grooved and scallop domes.
*Engineering Structures*, 148, pp.436–450. Doi: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2017.07.003 - Uematsu, Y., and Tsuruishi, R., 2008. Wind load evaluation system for the design of roof cladding of spherical domes.
*Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics*, 96(10–11), pp.2054–2066. Doi: 10.1016/j.jweia.2008.02.051 - Rajabi, E., Sadeghi, H., and Hashemi, M.R., 2022. Wind effect on building with Y-shaped plan.
*Asian Journal of Civil Engineering*, 23(1), pp.141–151. Doi: 10.1007/s42107-022-00417-z - Cheng, C.M., and Fu, C.L., 2010. Characteristic of wind loads on a hemispherical dome in smooth flow and turbulent boundary layer flow.
*Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics*, 98(6–7), pp.328–344. Doi: 10.1016/j.jweia.2009.12.002 - Hu, G., and Kwok, K.C.S., 2020. Predicting wind pressures around circular cylinders using machine learning techniques.
*Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics*, 198, pp.104099. Doi: 10.1016/j.jweia.2020.104099 - Liu, M., Li, Q.S., and Huang, S.H., 2019. Large eddy simulation of wind-driven rain effects on a large span retractable roof stadium.
*Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics*, 195, pp.104009. Doi: 10.1016/j.jweia.2019.104009 - Li, T., Yan, G., Feng, R., and Mao, X., 2020. Investigation of the flow structure of single- and dual-celled tornadoes and their wind effects on a dome structure.
*Engineering Structures*, 209, pp.109999. Doi: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.109999 - Sanyal, P., and Dalui, S.K., 2021. Effects of side ratio for “Y” plan shaped tall building under wind load.
*Building Simulation*, 14(4), pp.1221–1236. Doi: 10.1007/s12273-020-0731-1 - Verma, A., Meena, R.K., Raj, R., and Ahuja, A.K., 2022. Experimental investigation of wind induced pressure on various type of low-rise structure.
*Asian Journal of Civil Engineering*, 23(8), pp.1251–1265. Doi: 10.1007/s42107-022-00480-6 - Ayoubi, P.A., Yazdi, M.E., and Harsini, I., 2022. Analytical Modeling for Prediction of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbines Power Generation in Wind Farms Based on an Analytical Wake Model.
*Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment*, 13(4), pp.398–407. Doi: 10.5829/IJEE.2022.13.04.09 - Launder, B.E., and Sharma, B.I., 1974. Application of the energy-dissipation model of turbulence to the calculation of flow near a spinning disc.
*Letters in Heat and Mass Transfer*, 1(2), pp.131–137. Doi: 10.1016/0094-4548(74)90150-7 - Bardina, J.E., Huang, P.G., and Coakley, T.J., 1997. Turbulence modeling validation, testing, and development (No. A-976276).

July 2023

Pages 289-300