Relationship between Air Temperature and Rainfall Variability of Selected Stations in Sub-Sahara Africa

Document Type : Original Article


1 Physics and Solar Energy Programme, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, Bowen University, PMB 284 Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria

2 Statistics Programme, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, Bowen University, PMB 284 Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria


This current study was conducted on rainfall and air temperature data obtained from the archive of the HelioClim website to determine the relationship between the two parameters. The study aimed at the relationship between rainfall and air temperature. The data of thirty-four (34) years spanning from 1985 to 2019 was analyzed using Mann-Kendal statistics on the trend of the rainfall series while the normality of rainfall series was determined using Kolmogorov- Smirnov test across six southwest stations of Nigeria. The results revealed the highest mean rainfall in Akure (198.9 mm) while the least rainfall in Ado-Ekiti (163.4 mm). The maximum rainfall was in Abeokuta (865.8 mm) with Iwo having the highest disparity in rainfall (SD=148.8 mm) compared with other stations. The skewness in Abeokuta (Skewness = 0.9 mm) was higher compared with Ado-Ekiti, Akure, Ibadan, Ikeja and Iwo with skewness values of 0.7 mm, 0.4 mm, 0.7 mm, 0.6 mm and 0.7 mm, respectively. The maximum air temperature was recorded in Iwo (301.7 K) and the minimum air temperature in Ado-Ekiti (293.3 K). The skewness obtained in Akure (-0.2) and Ikeja (-0.3) was less than zero indicating that air temperature decreased more than it increased in these areas while in other stations, Abeokuta (0.01), Ado-Ekiti (0.22), Ibadan (0.02) and Iwo (0.24), the skewness was greater than zero meaning that air temperature increased more than it decreased in these stations.


Main Subjects

  1. Nkuna, T.R., and Odiyo, J.O., 2016. The relationship between temperature and rainfall variability in the Levubu sub-catchment, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Science, 1, pp.66–75. Retrieved from
  2. Manatsa, D., and Matarira, C.H., 2009. Changing dependence of Zimbabwean rainfall variability on ENSO and the Indian Ocean dipole/zonal mode. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 98(3–4), pp.375–396. Doi: 10.1007/s00704-009-0114-0
  3. Buishand, T., and Brandsma, T., 1999. Dependence of precipitation on temperature at Florence and Livorno (Italy). Climate Research, 12, pp.53–63. Doi: 10.3354/cr012053
  4. Macatsha, N.N., 2005. Water Quality Monitoring in the SADC region, Doctoral dissertation, University of the Witwatersrand.
  5. Aweda, F.O., Akinpelu, J.A., Falaiye, O.A., and Adegboye, J.O., 2016. Temperature Performance Evaluation of Parabolic Dishes Covered with Different Materials in Iwo, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 24(1), pp.90–97. Doi: 10.4314/njbas.v24i1.14
  6. Oloruntade, A.J., Mogaji, K.O., and Imoukhuede, O.B., 2018. Rainfall Trends and Variability over Onitsha, Nigeria. Ruhuna Journal of Science, 9(2), pp.127–139. Doi: 10.4038/rjs.v9i2.40
  7. LAGOONS, 2013. Results of the problem based science analysis: The Ria de Aveiro Lagoon. LAGOONS Report D3.2.1.
  8. Abdul Aziz, O.I., and Burn, D.H., 2006. Trends and variability in the hydrological regime of the Mackenzie River Basin. Journal of Hydrology, 319(1–4), pp.282–294. Doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.06.039
  9. Oguntunde, P.G., Abiodun, B.J., and Lischeid, G., 2011. Rainfall trends in Nigeria, 1901–2000. Journal of Hydrology, 411(3–4), pp.207–218. Doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.09.037
  10. Smith, M., 2000. The application of climatic data for planning and management of sustainable rainfed and irrigated crop production. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 103(1–2), pp.99–108. Doi: 10.1016/S0168-1923(00)00121-0
  11. Xu, Z., Liu, Z., Fu, G., and Chen, Y., 2010. Trends of major hydroclimatic variables in the Tarim River basin during the past 50 years. Journal of Arid Environments, 74(2), pp.256–267. Doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2009.08.014
  12. Wang, D., Hejazi, M., Cai, X., and Valocchi, A.J., 2011. Climate change impact on meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological drought in central Illinois. Water Resources Research, 47(9), pp.1–13. Doi: 10.1029/2010WR009845
  13. Anghileri, D., Pianosi, F., and Soncini-Sessa, R., 2014. Trend detection in seasonal data: from hydrology to water resources. Journal of Hydrology, 511, pp.171–179. Doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.01.022
  14. Aweda, F.O., Adeniji, A.A., Akinpelu, J.A., and Abiodun, A.J., 2021. Analysis of rainfall trends and variabilities for three decades in Sub – Sahara Africa. Ruhuna Journal of Science, 12(1), pp.55–63. Doi: 10.4038/rjs.v12i1.100
  15. Mondal, A., Kundu, S., and Mukhopadhyay, A., 2012. Rainfall trend analysis by Mann-Kendall test: A case study of north-eastern part of Cuttack district, Orissa. International Journal of Geology, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2(1), pp.70–78. Retrieved from
  16. Shahid, S., 2010. Rainfall variability and the trends of wet and dry periods in Bangladesh. International Journal of Climatology, 30(15), pp.2299–2313. Doi: 10.1002/joc.2053
  17. Adefolalu, D.O., 2007. Climate change and economic sustainability in Nigeria. In: International Conference on Climate Change and Economic Sustainability held at Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Enugu, Nigeria. pp 12–14.
  18. Abaje, I.B., Ishaya, S., and Usman, S.U., 2010. An analysis of rainfall trends in Kafanchan, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences, 2(2), pp.89–96. Maxwell Science Publishing.
  19. Akinsanola, A.A., and Ogunjobi, K.O., 2014. Analysis of rainfall and temperature variability over Nigeria. Global Journal of Human-Social Science: B Geography, Geo-Sciences, Environmental Disaster Management, 14(3), pp.1–17.
  20. Aweda, F.O., Olufemi, S.J., and AGBOLADE, J., 2022. Meteorological Parameters Study and Temperature Forecasting in Selected Stations in Sub-Sahara Africa using MERRA-2 Data. Nigerian Journal of Technological Development, 19(1), pp.80–91.
  21. Lekalakala, R.G., 2017. Options for Managing Climate Risk and Climate Change Adaptation in Smallholder Farming Systems of the Limpopo Province, South Africa, Doctoral dissertation, Göttingen, Georg-August Universität.
  22. D. D. Bosch, J. M. Sheridan, and F. M. Davis, 1999. Rainfall characteristics and spatial correlation for the georgia coastal plain. Transactions of the ASAE, 42(6), pp.1637–1644. Doi: 10.13031/2013.13330
  23. Mukheibir, P., and Sparks, D., 2003. Water resource management and climate change in South Africa: Visions, driving factors and sustainable development indicators. Report for Phase I of the Sustainable Development and Climate Change project. Energy and Development Research Centre (EDRC), University of Cape Town.
  24. Gelaro, R., McCarty, W., Suárez, M.J., Todling, R., Molod, A., Takacs, L., Randles, C.A., Darmenov, A., Bosilovich, M.G., Reichle, R., Wargan, K., 2017. The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2). Journal of Climate, 30(14), pp.5419–5454. Doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0758.1
  25. Aweda, F.O., Adebayo, S., Samson, T.K., and Ojedokun, I.A., 2021. Modelling Net Radiative Measurement of Meteorological Parameters Using MERRA-2 Data in Sub-Sahara African Town. Iranian (Iranica) Journal of Energy & Environment, 12(2), pp.173–180. Doi: 10.5829/ijee.2021.12.02.10
  26. Aweda, F.O., and Samson, T.K., 2020. Modelling the Earth’s Solar Irradiance Across Some Selected Stations in Sub-Sahara Region of Africa. Iranian (Iranica) Journal of Energy & Environment Journal, 11(3), pp.204–211. Doi: 10.5829/ijee.2020.11.03.05
  27. Aweda, F.O., Oyewole, J.A., Fashae, J.B., and Samson, T.K., 2020. Variation of the Earth’s Irradiance over Some Selected Towns in Nigeria. Iranian (Iranica) Journal of Energy and Environment, 11(4), pp.301–307. Doi: 10.5829/IJEE.2020.11.04.08
  28. Aweda, F.O., Agbolade, J.O., Oyewole, J.A., and Sanni, M., 2021. Seasonal variation of some atmospheric parameters in fresh water swamp and Sudan Savanna areas of Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Technology, 40(4), pp.740–750. Doi: 10.4314/njt.v40i4.21