Document Type : Original Article


1 Faculty of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Environmental Civil Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran


Soil contamination is considered a controversial issue in most countries. Nowadays, it is important to clearly understand how pollutants influence the soil from different sources. Today, hydrocarbons are one of the most important sources of soil contaminants, which is considered as a fundamental issue at the global level. The current study aims to analyze and model the effect of simultaneous parameters (time and concentration) of phenols and naphthalene with different percentages (10, 15, 20 and 25%) together with the amount of bentonite in fine-grained sandy soil. The designed experiments made use of response surface methodology (RSM) and Design-Expert software to carry out a computer-based simulation. According to the proposed model, the amount of bentonite is most affected by the permeability of the soil. The obtained results also showed that the permeability significantly decreases in the light of increasing the percentage of phenol and naphthalene coupled with the amount of bentonite and the age of contamination. On average, an 80% reduction of permeability was observed in contaminated soil, which was found in the soil contaminated with naphthalene. According to the results of the synergistic effects of time, the considerable impacts of both the percentage of hydrocarbon pollutants and the amount of bentonite on the reduction of permeability are quite evident.


Main Subjects

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