Experimental Evaluation of the Effect of Incident Wave Frequency on the Performance of a Dual-chamber Oscillating Water Columns Considering Resonance Phenomenon Occurrence

Document Type : Original Article


Sea-Based Energy Research Group, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran


This paper has experimentally investigated the performance of a dual-chamber oscillating water columns (OWC) imposed on Caspian Sea wave’s characteristics. Experimental runs were performed for three water draft depths of 10, 15, and 20 cm and eight wave frequencies ranging from 0.4 to 0.7 Hz. Also, if the converter consists of only one chamber, the power generated was 75W; however, by placing the second chamber serial behind the first chamber, the converter power increased to 116 watts (55% improvements). The results showed that if the frequency of the incident wave is not in the natural frequency range, the converter performs is better at the lowest water draft depth (10 cm). Whereas if the frequency of the incident wave is in the natural frequency range, the converter will have the best performance at the maximum water draft depth (20 cm). As the power generated at a water draft depth of 10 cm increased by 3.8% compared to a water draft depth of 20 cm. But within the natural frequency range and by resonance, the power produced at a depth of 20 cm is 27.3% more than the power generated at a depth of 10 cm.


Main Subjects

  1. Brooke, J., 2003. Wave energy conversion. Elsevier, https://www.elsevier.com/books/wave-energy-conversion/brooke/9780-08-044212-9
  2. McCormick, M.E., 2013. Ocean wave energy conversion. Courier Corporation, https://doi.org/10.1016/C2016-0-01219-6
  3. Sawin, J.L., Sverrisson, F., Rutovitz, J., Dwyer, S., Teske, S., Murdock, H.E., Adib, R., Guerra, F., Blanning, L.H., and Hamirwasia, V., 2018. Renewables 2018-Global status report. A comprehensive annual overview of the state of renewable energy. Advancing the global renewable energy transition-Highlights of the REN21 Renewables 2018 Global Status Report in perspective, https://inis.iaea.org/search/search.aspx?orig_q=RN:49053208
  4. Mo̸rk, G., Barstow, S., Kabuth, A., and Pontes, M.T., 2010. Assessing the Global Wave Energy Potential. In: 29th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering: Volume 3. ASMEDC, pp 447–454, https://asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/OMAE/proceedings/OMAE2010/49118/447/345942
  5. Reguero, B.G., Losada, I.J., and Méndez, F.J., 2015. A global wave power resource and its seasonal, interannual and long-term variability. Applied Energy, 148, pp.366–380. Doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.03.114
  6. Falcão, A.F.O., and Henriques, J.C.C., 2016. Oscillating-water-column wave energy converters and air turbines: A review. Renewable Energy, 85, pp.1391–1424. Doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2015.07.086
  7. Shalby, M., Dorrell, D.G., and Walker, P., 2019. Multi-chamber oscillating water column wave energy converters and air turbines: A review. International Journal of Energy Research, 43(2), pp.681–696. Doi: 10.1002/er.4222
  8. Boccotti, P., 2007. Comparison between a U-OWC and a conventional OWC. Ocean Engineering, 34(5–6), pp.799–805. Doi: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2006.04.005
  9. Dorrell, D.G., Hsieh, M.-F., and Lin, C.-C., 2010. A Multichamber Oscillating Water Column Using Cascaded Savonius Turbines. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, 46(6), pp.2372–2380. Doi: 10.1109/TIA.2010.2072979
  10. He, F., Huang, Z., and Wing-Keung Law, A., 2012. Hydrodynamic performance of a rectangular floating breakwater with and without pneumatic chambers: An experimental study. Ocean Engineering, 51, pp.16–27. Doi: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2012.05.008
  11. Min-Fu Hsieh, I-Hsien Lin, Dorrell, D.G., Ming-June Hsieh, and Chi-Chien Lin, 2012. Development of a Wave Energy Converter Using a Two Chamber Oscillating Water Column. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 3(3), pp.482–497. Doi: 10.1109/TSTE.2012.2190769
  12. Wilbert, R., Sundar, V., and Sannasiraj, S.A., 2013. Wave Interaction with a Double Chamber Oscillating Water Column Device. The International Journal of Ocean and Climate Systems, 4(1), pp.21–39. Doi: 10.1260/1759-3131.4.1.21
  13. Martinelli, L., Pezzutto, P., and Ruol, P., 2013. Experimentally Based Model to Size the Geometry of a New OWC Device, with Reference to the Mediterranean Sea Wave Environment. Energies, 6(9), pp.4696–4720. Doi: 10.3390/en6094696
  14. Nielsen, K., and Bingham, H., 2015. MARINET experiment KNSWING testing an I-Beam OWC attenuator. International Journal of Marine Energy, 12, pp.21–34. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijome.2015.08.005
  15. Rezanejad, K., Bhattacharjee, J., and Guedes Soares, C., 2015. Analytical and numerical study of dual-chamber oscillating water columns on stepped bottom. Renewable Energy, 75, pp.272–282. Doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2014.09.050
  16. Shalby, M., Walker, P., and Dorrell, D.G., 2016. The investigation of a segment multi-chamber oscillating water column in physical scale model. In: 2016 IEEE International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications (ICRERA). IEEE, pp 183–188, Doi: 10.1109/ICRERA.2016.7884534
  17. Rezanejad, K., Bhattacharjee, J., and Guedes Soares, C., 2016. Analytical and Numerical Study of Nearshore Multiple Oscillating Water Columns. Journal of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, 138(2), pp.1–16. Doi: 10.1115/1.4032303
  18. He, F., Leng, J., and Zhao, X., 2017. An experimental investigation into the wave power extraction of a floating box-type breakwater with dual pneumatic chambers. Applied Ocean Research, 67, pp.21–30. Doi: 10.1016/j.apor.2017.06.009
  19. Rusu, E., and Onea, F., 2013. Evaluation of the wind and wave energy along the Caspian Sea. Energy, 50, pp.1–14. Doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2012.11.044
  20. Fadaee Nejad, M., Shariati, O., and Mohd Zin, A.A. Bin, 2013. Feasibility study of wave energy potential in southern coasts of Caspian Sea in Iran. In: 2013 IEEE 7th International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference (PEOCO). IEEE, pp 57–60, Doi: 10.1109/PEOCO.2013.6564515
  21. Hadadpour, S., Etemad-Shahidi, A., Jabbari, E., and Kamranzad, B., 2014. Wave energy and hot spots in Anzali port. Energy, 74, pp.529–536. Doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2014.07.018
  22. Alamian, R., Shafaghat, R., Miri, S.J., Yazdanshenas, N., and Shakeri, M., 2014. Evaluation of technologies for harvesting wave energy in Caspian Sea. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 32, pp.468–476. Doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2014.01.036
  23. Alamian, R., Shafaghat, R., Hosseini, S.S., and Zainali, A., 2017. Wave energy potential along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. International Journal of Marine Energy, 19, pp.221–234. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijome.2017.08.002
  24. Alizadeh Kharkeshi, B., Shafaghat, R., Alamian, R., and Aghajani Afghan, A.H., 2020. Experimental & Analytical Hydrodynamic Behavior Investigation of an Onshore OWC-WEC Imposed to Caspian Sea Wave Conditions. International Journal of Maritime Technology, 14, pp.1–12, http://dorl.net/dor/20.1001.1.23456000.2020.
  25. Sanaye, S., and Katebi, A., 2014. 4E analysis and multi objective optimization of a micro gas turbine and solid oxide fuel cell hybrid combined heat and power system. Journal of Power Sources, 247, pp.294–306. Doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.08.065
  26. Alizadeh Kharkeshi, B., Shafaghat, R., Jahanian, O., Rezanejad, K., and Alamian, R., 2021. Experimental Evaluation of the Effect of Dimensionless Hydrodynamic Coefficients on the Performance of a Multi-Chamber Oscillating Water Column Converter in Laboratory Scale. Modares Mechanical Engineering, 21(12), pp.823–834. http://dorl.net/dor/20.1001.1.10275940.1400.
  27. Shalby, M., Walker, P., and Dorrell, D.G., 2017. Modelling of the multi-chamber oscillating water column in regular waves at model scale. Energy Procedia, 136(2), pp.316–322. Doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2017.10.261
  28. Rezanejad, K., Guedes Soares, C., López, I., and Carballo, R., 2017. Experimental and numerical investigation of the hydrodynamic performance of an oscillating water column wave energy converter. Renewable Energy, 106(2), pp.1–16. Doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2017.01.003