Document Type : Original Article
Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria
Department of Geophysics, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria
Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
Department of Geology, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria
The increasing prevalence of water-borne diseases necessitates periodic monitoring of domestic and drinking water sources. The current study assessed the safety of well water in the four emirate zones (Gwandu, Yauri, Argungu, and Zuru) of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Using normal procedures, samples of well water were examined for heavy metals, physicochemical characteristics, and microorganisms, and the results were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water criteria. The heavy metals’ chronic daily ingestion (CDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) were also determined. The results showed that well water in the four emirate zones had normal temperature, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended solids (TSS), and zinc (Zn). However, non-permissible concentrations of lead (Pb), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and pH (Gwandu and Argungu only) were detected in all the water samples. Except for Cd and Cr in children, the CDI and HQ of the heavy metals were normal. The microbiological examinations revealed that the water samples from the four zones had abnormal levels of Bacillus species (bacteria), Escherichia coli (bacteria), Staphylococcus aureus (bacteria), Aspergillus niger (fungi), Mucor racemosa (fungi), and Paecilomyces variotti (fungi). The results obtained suggest that well water in the four zones is not suitable for human consumption unless treated.