Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria

2 Department of Geophysics, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria

3 Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

4 Department of Geology, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria

5 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State, Nigeria


The increasing prevalence of water-borne diseases necessitates periodic monitoring of domestic and drinking water sources. The current study assessed the safety of well water in the four emirate zones (Gwandu, Yauri, Argungu, and Zuru) of Kebbi State, Nigeria. Using normal procedures, samples of well water were examined for heavy metals, physicochemical characteristics, and microorganisms, and the results were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water criteria. The heavy metals’ chronic daily ingestion (CDI) and hazard quotient (HQ) were also determined. The results showed that well water in the four emirate zones had normal temperature, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended solids (TSS), and zinc (Zn). However, non-permissible concentrations of lead (Pb), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and pH (Gwandu and Argungu only) were detected in all the water samples. Except for Cd and Cr in children, the CDI and HQ of the heavy metals were normal. The microbiological examinations revealed that the water samples from the four zones had abnormal levels of Bacillus species (bacteria), Escherichia coli (bacteria), Staphylococcus aureus (bacteria), Aspergillus niger (fungi), Mucor racemosa (fungi), and Paecilomyces variotti (fungi). The results obtained suggest that well water in the four zones is not suitable for human consumption unless treated.


Main Subjects

  1. Kolekar, S.S., 2017. Physico-chemical analysis of ground water quality parameters–A Review. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 10(1), pp.376–378.
  2. Patil, V.T., and Patil, P.R., 2010. Physicochemical Analysis of Selected Groundwater Samples of Amalner Town inJalgaon District, Maharashtra, India. E-Journal of Chemistry, 7(1), pp.111–116. Doi: 10.1155/2010/820796
  3. Joarder, M.A.M., Raihan, F., Alam, J.B., and Hasanuzzaman, S., 2008. Regression analysis of ground water quality data of Sunamganj District, Bangladesh. International Journal of Environmental Research (IJER), 2(3), pp.291–296.
  4. Tesfalem, N., Tesfamariam, A., Okbaslasie, A., and Tesfay, K., 2019. Physico-chemical Analysis of Groundwater Around Mai-Bela, Asmara, Eritrea. American Academic Scientific Research Journal for Engineering, Technology, and Sciences, 57(1), pp.161–186.
  5. Easa, A., and Abou-Rayan, A., 2010. Domestic wastewater effect on the pollution of the groundwater in rural areas in Egypt. aquatic, 3(4).
  6. Sasakova, N., Gregova, G., Takacova, D., Mojzisova, J., Papajova, I., Venglovsky, J., Szaboova, T., and Kovacova, S., 2018. Pollution of Surface and Ground Water by Sources Related to Agricultural Activities. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 2. Doi: 10.3389/fsufs.2018.00042
  7. Kass, A., Gavrieli, I., Yechieli, Y., Vengosh, A., and Starinsky, A., 2005. The impact of freshwater and wastewater irrigation on the chemistry of shallow groundwater: a case study from the Israeli Coastal Aquifer. Journal of Hydrology, 300(1–4), pp.314–331. Doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2004.06.013
  8. Yahaya, T., Okpuzor, J., and Esther, O.O., 2012. Investigation of Cytotoxicity and Mutagenicity of Cement Dust Using Allium cepa Test. Research Journal of Mutagenesis, 2(1), pp.10–18. Doi: 10.3923/rjmutag.2012.10.18
  9. Yahaya, T.O., Oladele, E.O., Chibs, B., Abdulazeez, A., Nnochiri, K., Stephen, A.O., Ahmed, H., and Daniel, A., 2020. Level and Health Risk Evaluation of Heavy Metals and Microorganisms in Urban Soils of Lagos, Southwest Nigeria. Algerian Journal of Biosceinces, 1(02), pp.51–60. Doi:
  10. Hannan, A., Shan, S., and Arshad, U.M., 2010. Bacteriological analysis of drinking water from 100 families of Lahore by membrane filtration technique and chromagar. Biomedica, 26(Jul.-Dec.), pp.152–156.
  11. Dohare, D., Deshpande, S., and Kotiya, A., 2014. Analysis of ground water quality parameters: a Review. Research Journal of Engineering Sciences ISSN, 2278, pp.9472.
  12. Ghrefat, H., Nazzal, Y., Batayneh, A., Zumlot, T., Zaman, H., Elawadi, E., Laboun, A., Mogren, S., and Qaisy, S., 2014. Geochemical assessment of groundwater contamination with special emphasizes on fluoride, a case study from Midyan Basin, northwestern Saudi Arabia. Environmental Earth Sciences, 71(4), pp.1495–1505. Doi: 10.1007/s12665-013-2554-1
  13. Yahaya, T.O., Oladele, E.O., Fatodu, I.A., Abdulazeez, A., and Yeldu, Y.I., 2020. The concentration and health risk assessment of heavy metals and microorganisms in the groundwater of Lagos, Southwest Nigeria. Journal of Advances in Environmental Health Research, 8(3), pp.234–242. Doi: 10.22102/jaehr.2020.245629.1183
  14. Yahaya, T., Aliero, A.A., Oladele, E., CD, O., Nathaniel, J., and MZ, A., 2021. Concentration and Cytogenotoxicity of Heavy Metals and Microorganisms in Labana Rice Mills Wastewater Birnin Kebbi, Northwestern Nigeria. Nigerian Research Journal of Engineering and Environmental Sciences, 6(1), pp.216–225. Doi:
  15. Bello, M.N., and Jeb, D.N., 2014. Analysis of flood risk inundation hazard in Birnin Kebbi town, Kebbi State, Nigeria. International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences, 5(1), pp.119–131.
  16. American Public Health Association, 2012. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 22nd edition. In: Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C.
  17. Muhammad, S., Shah, M.T., and Khan, S., 2011. Health risk assessment of heavy metals and their source apportionment in drinking water of Kohistan region, northern Pakistan. Microchemical Journal, 98(2), pp.334–343. Doi: 10.1016/j.microc.2011.03.003
  18. United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1999. Guidance for performing aggregate exposure and risk assessments,’’ Office of Pesticide Programs. In: Washington, D.C.
  19. Brock, T.D., 1983. Membrane filtration: A user’s guide and reference manual. In: Madison, WI: Science Tech, Inc.
  20. Babič, M., Gunde-Cimerman, N., Vargha, M., Tischner, Z., Magyar, D., Veríssimo, C., Sabino, R., Viegas, C., Meyer, W., and Brandão, J., 2017. Fungal Contaminants in Drinking Water Regulation? A Tale of Ecology, Exposure, Purification and Clinical Relevance. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(6), pp.636. Doi: 10.3390/ijerph14060636
  21. World Health Organization, 2017. Guidelines for Drinking-Water quality: First Addendum to the Fourth Edition, Geneva, Switzerland.
  22. World Health Organization, 2008. Guidelines for Drinking water- Quality: Incorporating the first and second addenda volume1 Recommendations, Geneva, Switzerland.
  23. Elinge, C., 2015. Physico-Chemical and Heavy Metal Analyses of Some Ground Water in Bunza, North Western, Nigeria. American Journal of Applied Chemistry, 3(4), pp.153. Doi: 10.11648/j.ajac.20150304.12
  24. Wali, S.U., Umar, K.J., Abubakar, S.D., Ifabiyi, I.P., Dankani, I.M., Shera, I.M., and Yauri, S.G., 2019. Hydrochemical characterization of shallow and deep groundwater in Basement Complex areas of southern Kebbi State, Sokoto Basin, Nigeria. Applied Water Science, 9(8), pp.169. Doi: 10.1007/s13201-019-1042-5
  25. Aliyu, A.K., Birnin-Yauri, U.A., Umar, K.J., Isa, S.A., and Nasiru, M.K., 2018. Assessment of some physicochemical parameters and heavy metals in groundwater obtained from sandy area of Argungu Emirate, Kebbi State, Nigeria. Continental Journal of Applied Science, 13(1), pp.1–15. Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1193935
  26. Parvez, N., and Pritul, A.S., 2018. Analysis of Ground Water Quality: A Case Study in the Savar (Akrain) Area. Journal of Water Resources and Pollution Studies, 3(3), pp.67–75. Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1626349
  27. World Health Organization, 2006. Guidelines for drinking-water quality: Health criteria and other supporting information’’, 2nd ed. Vol. 2, Geneva.
  28. Shabanda, I., Kilgori, S., Umar, S., and Aminu, M., 2014. Selected Trace Heavy Metals Concentrations in Well and Borehole Water in Aliero Metropolis. International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 4(6), pp.880–886. Doi: 10.9734/IRJPAC/2014/11640
  29. Rahimzadeh, M.R., Rahimzadeh, M.R., Kazemi, S., and Moghadamnia, A., 2017. Cadmium toxicity and treatment: An update. Caspian journal of internal medicine, 8(3), pp.135–145. Doi:
  30. Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ), 2007. Nigerian Industrial Standard NIS 554 Standard Organization of Nigeria.
  31. Adeyemi, A.A., and Ojekunle, Z.O., 2021. Concentrations and health risk assessment of industrial heavy metals pollution in groundwater in Ogun state, Nigeria. Scientific African, 11, pp.e00666. Doi: 10.1016/j.sciaf.2020.e00666
  32. Ekere, N.R., Hedioha, J.N., Eze, I.S., and Agbazue, V.E., 2014. Health risk assessment in relation to heavy metals in water sources in rural regions of South East Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 9(6), pp.109–116. Doi: 10.5897/IJPS2014.4125
  33. Popoff, M., 2011. Multifaceted interactions of bacterial toxins with the gastrointestinal mucosa. Future Microbiology, 6(7), pp.763–797. Doi: 10.2217/fmb.11.58
  34. Kingdom, T., Zige, D.V., and Anesakeme, D., 2018. Assessing the hygienic status of processed fresh water clam (Galatea paradoxa) in Yenagoa Metropolis, Bayelsa State, Niger Delta, Nigeria. American Journal of Food Science and Technology, 6(5), pp.219–222. Doi: 10.12691/ajfst-6-5-5
  35. Minnesota Department of Health, 2019. About Staphylococcus aureus’’, Minnesota Department of Health Fact Sheet.
  36. de Hoog, G.S., Guarro, J., Díaz, J.G., Ahmed, S.A., Al Hatmi, A.M.S., Figueras, M.J., and Vitale, R.G., 2021. Atlas of Clinical Fungi: The Ultimate Benchtool for Diagnostics. Introductions, Lower Fungi, Basidiomycetes, Yeasts, Filamentous Ascomycetes AB. Part Α. Foundation Atlas of Clinical Fungi. Doi: 10.1007/s101230100009
  37. Augustina Egbuta, M., Mwanza, M., and Oluranti Babalola, O., 2016. A Review of the Ubiquity of Ascomycetes Filamentous Fungi in Relation to Their Economic and Medical Importance. Advances in Microbiology, 06(14), pp.1140–1158. Doi: 10.4236/aim.2016.614103
  38. Moreira, D., Oliveira, M., and Borba, C., 2018. Human Pathogenic Paecilomyces from Food. Microorganisms, 6(3), pp.64. Doi: 10.3390/microorganisms6030064
  39. Shemishere, U., Yahaya, T., Anyebe, D., and Bello, A., 2019. Heavy Metal and Microbial Contents of Borehole Water in Birnin Kebbi and Kalgo Metropolis, Kebbi State, Nigeria. Savanna Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1(2), pp.261–268.
  40. Ola-Buraimo, A.O., Ologe, O., and Benemaikwu, O.D., 2018. Field Geology and Microbiological Investigation of Borehole, Public Tap Water and Hand-Dug Wells in Some Parts of Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Scientific Research, 17(3), pp.229–240.
  41. Elinge, C.M., Yusuf, H., Jude, N., Peni, I.J., and Owusu, K.B., 2010. Physicochemical and Bacteriological Profiles of Borehole Water from Aliero Community of Kebbi State, Nigeria. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems, 4(1), pp.79–82.
  42. Bashir, I., Adam, A.S., Yahaya, H.S., Makeri, D., Ntulume, I., Aliero, A.A., and Afolabi, R.O., 2018. Assessment of bacteriological quality of borehole water in Wamakko local government, Sokoto state, Nigeria. Novel Research in Microbiology Journal, 2(6), pp.175–184. Doi: 10.21608/NRMJ.2018.22710