Effect of Different Proportions of Courtyard Buildings in Hot-Dry Climate on Energy Consumption (Case Study: Traditional Courtyard Houses of Kerman, Iran)

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Architecture, Bam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bam, Iran


One of the crucial issues in early stages of designing process of a building is a lack of architects’ knowledge about the energy consumption in different forms of building with different proportions, especially in central courtyard forms. The purpose of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of the ratio of perimeter to the height of the courtyard (R1) and the ratio of width to length of the courtyard (R2) on energy consumption. In the first step of this research, different proportions of central courtyard with different R1 and R2 were simulated in design builder software. Then, multi linear regression was used to find out the effect of different proportions (R1 and R2) on energy consumption through SPSS software. Finally, the effect of R1 and R 2 ratio on energy consumption was validated through investigating six existing central courtyard forms. The result demonstrated that the effective coefficient of the R1 and R2 ratio on energy consumption were -25.41 and 62.69 respectively. Findings of this research help architects to achieve relative acknowledge about the energy consumption of different proportions of the courtyard forms for creating more energy efficient forms. 


Main Subjects

  1. Zamani, Z., Heidari, S. and Hanachi, P., 2018. “Reviewing the Thermal and Microclimatic Function of Courtyards”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 93, pp.580-595. Doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2018.05.055
  2. Behzadi Forough, A., Norouzi, N. and Fani, M., 2021. “More Secure Iranian Energy System: A Markal Based Energy Security Model for Iranian Energy Demand-Side”. Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, 12(2), pp.100-108. Doi: 10.5829/IJEE.2021.12.02.01
  3. Montaser Koohsari, A., Fayaz, R. and Kari, B. M., 2016. “Optimizing Window Size and Its Sunshade in Four Main Directions of Residential Buildings in Mild Climate by Integrating Thermal and Lighting Analysis”. Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment, 3(2), pp.1-14. Doi: 10.30501/jree.2016.70080
  4. Emami Razavi, S. M., Jahangir, M. H. and Mousavi, S., 2019. “A Review Study About Photovoltaic Systems and the Energy Payback Time Calculation for Selected Modules”. Journal of Renewable Energy and Environment, 6(3), pp.38-49. Doi: 10.30501/jree.2019.100263
  5. Sadafi, N., Jamshidi, N. and Zahedian, M., 2021. “Energy Efficient Design Optimization of a Building Envelope in a Temperate and Humid Climate”. Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, 12(3), pp.255-263. 10.5829/IJEE.2021.12.03.10
  6. Soflaei, F., Shokouhian, M. and Shemirani, S. M. M., 2016. “Investigation of Iranian Traditional Courtyard as Passive Cooling Strategy (a Field Study on Bs Climate)”. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment, 5(1), pp.99-113. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijsbe.2015.12.001
  7. Malekzadeh, M. and Loveday, D., 2008. Towards the Integrated Thermal Simulation of Indoor and Outdoor Building Spaces. in Proceedings of Conference: Air Conditioning and the Low Carbon Cooling Challenge, Cumberland Lodge, Windsor, UK, pp:  27-29.
  8. Soflaei, F., Shokouhian, M. and Zhu, W., 2017. “Socio-Environmental Sustainability in Traditional Courtyard Houses of Iran and China”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 69, pp.1147-1169. Doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.09.130
  9. Mohammad Alinezhad, F., 2019. “Passive Cooling in Shavadoon of Traditional Buildings of Dezful City: Cooling through Renewable Energy Sources”. Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, 10(2), pp.115-120. Doi: 10.5829/ijee.2019.10.02.08
  10. Mohammad Alinezhad, F., 2020. “Energy Saving through Connection of Sunken Garden with Nature and Passive Cooling in Traditional Buildings of Hot and Dry Climate of Iran”. Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, 11(1), pp.19-25. Doi: 10.5829/ijee.2020.11.01.04
  11. Taleghani, M., Tenpierik, M. and van den Dobbelsteen, A., 2012. “Environmental Impact of Courtyards—a Review and Comparison of Residential Courtyard Buildings in Different Climates”. Journal of Green Building, 7(2), pp.113-136. Doi: 10.3992/jgb.7.2.113
  12. Al-Oraier, F., 2005. Thermal Analysis of Traditional Adobe Dwellings in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Cardiff University (United Kingdom). ISSN: 1303165899.
  13. Almhafdy, A., Ibrahim, N., Ahmad, S. and Yahya, J., 2013. “Analysis of the Courtyard Functions and Its Design Varuants”. University of Westminster, pp.171-182. Doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.11.018
  14. Das, N., Courtyards Houses of Kolkata: Bioclimatic, Typological and Socio-Cultural Study. 2006, Kansas State University.
  15. Meir, I. A., Pearlmutter, D. and Etzion, Y., 1995. “On the Microclimatic Behavior of Two Semi-Enclosed Attached Courtyards in a Hot Dry Region”. Building and Environment, 30(4), pp.563-572. Doi: 10.1016/0360-1323(95)00018-2
  16. Keister, D., 2005. Courtyards: Intimate Outdoor Spaces. Gibbs Smith. ISSN: 1586855409.
  17. Acosta, I., Leslie, R. and Figueiro, M., 2017. “Analysis of Circadian Stimulus Allowed by Daylighting in Hospital Rooms”. Lighting Research and Technology, 49(1), pp.49-61. Doi: 10.1177/1477153515592948
  18. Baboli, F. B. M., Ibrahim, N. and Sharif, D. M., 2015. “Design Characteristics and Adaptive Role of the Traditional Courtyard Houses in the Moderate Climate of Iran”. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 201, pp.213-223. Doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.08.170
  19. Rojas, J. M., Galán-Marín, C. and Fernández-Nieto, E. D., 2012. “Parametric Study of Thermodynamics in the Mediterranean Courtyard as a Tool for the Design of Eco-Efficient Buildings”. Energies, 5(7), pp.2381-2403. Doi: 10.3390/en5072381
  20. Vaisman, G. and Horvat, M., 2015. “Influence of Internal Courtyards on the Energy Load and Hours of Illuminance in Row Houses in Toronto”. Energy Procedia, 78, pp.1799-1804. Doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.312
  21. Safarzadeh, H. and Bahadori, M., 2005. “Passive Cooling Effects of Courtyards”. Building and Environment, 40(1), pp.89-104. Doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2004.04.014
  22. Rajapaksha, M. and Hyde, R., Courtyard as a Climate Modification Strategy for Thermal Comfort in Moderate Climate of Queensland, in 19th Passive and Low Energy Architecture Conference. 2002, PLEA 2002: Toulouse, France. pp: 637-643.
  23. Reynolds, J., 2002. Courtyards: Aesthetic, Social, and Thermal Delight. John Wiley & Sons. ISSN: 0471398845.
  24. Rodríguez-Algeciras, J., Tablada, A., Chaos-Yeras, M., De la Paz, G. and Matzarakis, A., 2018. “Influence of Aspect Ratio and Orientation on Large Courtyard Thermal Conditions in the Historical Centre of Camagüey-Cuba”. Renewable Energy, 125, pp.840-856. Doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2018.01.082
  25. Zakaria, M. A., Kubota, T. and Toe, D. H. C., 2015. “The Effects of Courtyards on Indoor Thermal Conditions of Chinese Shophouse in Malacca”. Procedia Engineering, 121, pp.468-476. Doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2015.08.1094
  26. Amiriparyan, P. and Kiani, Z., 2016. “Analyzing the Homogenous Nature of Central Courtyard Structure in Formation of Iranian Traditional Houses”. Procedia-social and Behavioral Sciences, 216, pp.905-915. Doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.12.087
  27. Abdulkareem, H. A., 2016. “Thermal Comfort through the Microclimates of the Courtyard. A Critical Review of the Middle-Eastern Courtyard House as a Climatic Response”. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 216, pp.662-674. Doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.12.054
  28. Aldawoud, A., 2008. “Thermal Performance of Courtyard Buildings”. Energy and Buildings, 40(5), pp.906-910. Doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2007.07.007
  29. Khalili, M. and Amindeldar, S., 2014. “Traditional Solutions in Low Energy Buildings of Hot-Arid Regions of Iran”. Sustainable Cities and Society, 13, pp.171-181. Doi: 10.1016/j.scs.2014.05.008
  30. Taleghani, M., Tenpierik, M. and van den Dobbelsteen, A., 2014. “Energy Performance and Thermal Comfort of Courtyard/Atrium Dwellings in the Netherlands in the Light of Climate Change”. Renewable Energy, 63, pp.486-497. Doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2013.09.028
  31. Muhaisen, A. S. and Gadi, M. B., 2006. “Effect of Courtyard Proportions on Solar Heat Gain and Energy Requirement in the Temperate Climate of Rome”. Building and Environment, 41(3), pp.245-253. Doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.01.031
  32. Hasan, S., Usmani, J. and Islam, M., 2018. “Simulation of Energy Conservation in a Building: A Case Study”. Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, 9(1), pp.10-15. Doi: 10.5829/ijee.2018.09.01.02
  33. Marsh, A. J., Performance Analysis and Conceptual Design, in School of Architecture and Fine Arts. 1997, University of Western Australia.
  34. Manioğlu, G. and Oral, G. K., 2015. “Effect of Courtyard Shape Factor on Heating and Cooling Energy Loads in Hot-Dry Climatic Zone”. Energy Procedia, 78, pp.2100-2105. Doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.250
  35. Tabesh, T. and Sertyesilisik, B., 2016. “An Investigation into Energy Performance with the Integrated Usage of a Courtyard and Atrium”. Buildings, 6(2), pp.21. Doi: 10.3390/buildings6020021
  36. Al-Sakkaf, A., Mohammed Abdelkader, E., Mahmoud, S. and Bagchi, A., 2021. “Studying Energy Performance and Thermal Comfort Conditions in Heritage Buildings: A Case Study of Murabba Palace”. Sustainability, 13(21), pp.12250. Doi: 10.3390/su132112250
  37. Ilbeigi, M., Ghomeishi, M. and Dehghanbanadaki, A., 2020. “Prediction and Optimization of Energy Consumption in an Office Building Using Artificial Neural Network and a Genetic Algorithm”. Sustainable Cities and Society, 61, pp.102325. Doi: 10.1016/j.scs.2020.102325
  38. Bergero, S. and Chiari, A., 2021. Validation and Calibration of Dynamic Energy Models: Energy Audit of a Public Building. in Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 8th European Thermal Sciences Conference (EUROTHERM 2021) pp:  012107. Doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/2116/1/012107
  39. Kaza, N., 2010. “Understanding the Spectrum of Residential Energy Consumption: A Quantile Regression Approach”. Energy policy, 38(11), pp.6574-6585. Doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2010.06.028
  40. Price, B., 1991. Regression Analysis by Example. Wiley. ISSN: 0471884790.