Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Architecture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

2 Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, Tabriz Islamic Art University, Tabriz, Iran

3 Department of Architecture and Urbanism, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran


Most of today's buildings, due to improper imitation of the architecture of buildings in other countries, are forced to use more energy to create conditions of thermal comfort. Building windows affect energy efficiency. So, the aim of this research is to be concerned with Tabriz climate; in selecting the proportion and suitable glazing of the windows, in order to access the best design and execute a model to decrease energy consumption. The research approach is to utilize simulation and Design Builder software as a research tool. So, the annual gas consumed in the Building was received from the National Iranian Gas Company and a case study is modeled and after converting the unit from kWh to kg and kg to m3 and reliability of simulation results. Then, through parametric optimization, eight scenarios in designing windows and through the genetic algorithm, the glazing coating were evaluated. The simulations were performed again and the results index was examined. Eventually, based on the analysis of outputs, according to fixed area, it is more suitable to replace windows with the height of 1.5 to 1.74 meters instead of windows with the height of 1 or 1.2 meters. A window should be replaced with 2, 3, 4 or 5 windows with the same fixed area. I is desired to superseded triple-glazed glazing with low-emissivity filled with argon gas with clear double-glazed glazing filled with air to reduce energy consumption. The amount of heat losses for the window height of 1 to 1.5m, from one window to five windows and for the clear double-glazed glazing filled with air were 2.04%, 11.11%,. and 45.36%, respectively.


Main Subjects

  1. Eslami, M. and Nahani, P. 2021, “How Policies Affect the Cost-Effectiveness of Residential Renewable Energy in Iran: A Techno-Economic Analysis for Optimization.” Utilities Policy, 72, pp. 1-13.
  2. Balali, A. H., Hakimelahi, A. and Valipour, A. R. 2020, “Identification and Prioritization of Passive Energy Consumption Optimization Measures in the Building Industry: An Iranian Case Study.” Building Engineering, 30, pp. 1-34.
  3. Bao, H. X. H. and Haotong Li, S. 2020, “Housing Wealth and Residential Energy Consumption.” Energy Policy, 143, pp. 1-13.
  4. Zhang, SH., Hu, W., Li, D., Zhang, CH., Arici, M., Yildiz, C., Zhang, X. and Ma, Y. 2021, “Energy Efficiency Optimization of PCM and Aerogel-Filled Multiple Glazing Windows.” Energy, 222, pp. 1-14.
  5. Zekraoui, D. Zemmouri, N. 2017, “The Impact of Window Configuration on the Overall Building Energy Consumption under Specific Climate Conditions.” Energy Procedia, 115, pp. 162-172.
  6. Lechowska, A. A., Schnotale, A., Jacek, A. and Baldinelli, G. 2017, “Window Frame Thermal Transmittance Improvements Without Frame Geometry Variations: An Experimentally Validated CFD Analysis.” Energy and Buildings, 145, pp. 188-199.
  7. Khalesi, J. and Goudarzi, N. 2018, “Thermal Comfort in a Climate-Adaptive Building with Smart Windows and Different Outlet Opening Location.” Sustainable Cities and Society, Accepted Manuscript, pp. 1-32.
  8. Hasan, S., Usmani, J. A. and Islam, M. 2018, “Simulation of Energy Conservation in a Building: A Case Study.” Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, Vol. 9, No. (1), pp. 10-15. Doi: 10.5829/ijee.2018.09.01.02
  9. Potrc Obrecht, T., Premrov, M. and Zegarac Leskovar, V. 2019, “Influence of the Orientation on the Optimal Glazing Size for Passive Houses in Different European Climates (for non-Cardinal Directions).” Solar Energy, 189, pp. 15-25.
  10. Kaasalainen, T., Makinen, A., Lehtinen, T., Moisio, M. and Vinha, J. 2020, “Architectural Window Design and Energy Efficiency: Impacts on Heating, Cooling and Lighting Needs in Finnish Climates.” Building Engineering, 27, pp. 1-31.
  11. Zhou, Y. and Zheng, S. 2020, “Uncertainty Study on Thermal and Energy Performances of a Deterministic Parameters Based Optimal Aerogel Glazing System Using Machine-Learning Method.” Energy, 193, pp. 1-14.
  12. Abdoli Naser, S., Haghparast, F., Singery, M. and Sattari Sarbangholi, H. 2020, “Providing an Optimal Execution Model for Windows Based on Glazing to Reduce Fossil Fuel Consumption (Case Study: Asman Residential Complex of Tabriz).” Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, 11 (4), pp. 260-270. Doi: 10.5829/ijee.2020.11.04.03
  13. Saadatian, SH., Freire, F. and Simoes, N. 2021, “Embodied Impacts of Window-Systems: A Comparative Assessment of Framing and Glazing Alternatives.” Building Engineering, 35, pp. 1-35.
  14. Jiang, W., Liu, B., Li, Q., Li, D. and Ma, L. 2021, “Weight of Energy Consumption Parameters of Rural Residences in Severe Cold Area.” Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, 26, pp. 1-14.
  15. Sadafi, N., Jamshidi, N. and Zahedian, M. 2021, “Energy Efficient Design Optimization of a Building Envelope in a Temperate and Humid Climate.” Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, 12 (3), pp. 255-263. Doi: 10.5829/ijee.2021.12.03.10
  16. Abdoli Naser, S., Haghparast, F., Singery, M. and Sattari Sarbangholi, H. 2021, “Optimization of Thermal Performance of Windows in Intermediate Housing in Cold and Dry Climate of Tabriz.” Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, 12 (4), pp. 327-336. Doi: 10.5829/ijee.2021.12.04.06
  17. Huang, J., Wang, Q., Chen, X., Xu, SH. And Yang, H. 2021, “Experimental Investigation and Annual Overall Performance Comparison of Different Photovoltaic Vacuum Glazings.” Sustainable Cities and Society, 75, pp. 1-13.
  18. Tushar, Q., Bhuiyan, M. A. and Zhang, G. 2021, “Energy Simulation and Modeling for Window System: A Comparative Study of Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing.” Journal of Cleaner Production, In Press.
  19. Abdoli Naser, S., Haghparast, F., Singery, M. and Sattari Sarbangholi, H. 2021, “Investigating on Evolution of Windows from Qajar to Pahlavi Era in Tabriz’s Ganjei-Zade House with Heat Dissipation Approach.” Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, 12 (3), pp. 226-233. Doi: 10.5829/ijee.2021.12.03.07
  20. Bagheri Sabzevar, H. and Erfan, Z. 2021, “Effect of Fixed Louver Shading Devices on Thermal Efficiency.” Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, 12 (4), pp. 349-357. Doi: 10.5829/ijee.2021.12.04.08
  21. Eskin, N. and Turkmen, H. 2008, “Analysis of Annual Heating and Cooling Energy Requirements for Office Buildings in Different Climates in Turkey.” Energy and Buildings, 40 (5), pp. 763-773.
  22. Tabriz (East Azarbaijan) Meteorological Department, 2021.
  24. Daqiqeh Rezaei, S., Shannigrahi, S. and Ramakrishna, S. 2017, “A Review of Conventional, Advanced, and Smart Glazing Technologies and Materials for Improving Indoor Environment.” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 159, pp. 26-51.
  25., date and time of visit: December 3, 2021, 10:32 a.m.
  26. Paulos, J. and Berardi, U. 2020, “Optimizing the Thermal Performance of Window Frames through Aerogel-Enhancements.” Applied Energy, 266, pp. 1-18.