Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria

3 Department of Water Resources and Environmental Enginerring, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

4 Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria


Shea biodiesel (SBD) was produced and blended with diesel at various proportions to produce 100B (SBD), 75B, 50B, 25B, and D (diesel) as fuel types. The SBD and other fuel types were characterised by ASTM standard methods for its physicochemical properties. The fuel types were used in a compression ignition engine (CIE) to test for its fuel consumption, (FC) specific fuel consumption (SFC), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), exhaust temperature (ET) and emission characteristics hydrocarbon (HC), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). The physicochemical properties of SBD in terms of density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, cloud and pour points, and cetane number were 884.7 kg/m3, 5.69 mm2/s, 165 oC, 12 oC, 9 oC and 55, respectively; while those of diesel were 860.4 kg/m3, 2.6 mm2/s, 73 oC, 2.4 oC, -9 oC and 49, respectively. The results were within the range of the standard. The results obtained at 12 Nm torque for SFC, FC, BTE, and ET for SBD were 0.21 kg/kW.h, 0.71 kg/h, 12.69%, and 365 oC, respectively, while those of diesel were 0.31 kg/kW.h, 1.12 kg/h, 8.46%, and 330 oC, respectively. These results show that the SBD and diesel possessed similarity in terms of performance. The SBD is environmentally friendly compared to diesel. This study shows that the SBD possessed quality alternative replacement to diesel suitable for a CIE.


1.     Sathiyagnanam, A.P., Vijayaraj, K., and Saravanan, C.G., 2012. Biodiesel production from waste pork lard and an experimental investigation of its use as an alternate fuel in a di diesel engine. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics Research, 1, pp.176-191.
2.     Enweremadu, C.C., Rutto, H.L. and Peleowo, N., 2011. Performance evaluation of a diesel engine fueled with methyl ester of shea butter. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 79, pp.142-146.
3.     Yuan, W., Hansen, A.C. and Zhang, Q., 2004. The Specific Gravity Of Biodiesel Fuels And Their Blends With Diesel Fuel. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 6, pp.1-11.
4.     Demirbas, A., 2008. Biodiesel: A realistic fuel alternative for diesel engines. Springer-Verlag, London Limited.
5.     Öner, C. and Altun, Ş., 2009. Biodiesel production from inedible animal tallow and an experimental investigation of its use as alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine. Applied Energy, 86(10), pp.2114-2120.
6.     Lee, H.V., Taufiq-Yap, Y.H., Hussein, M.Z. and Yunus, R., 2013. Transesterification of jatropha oil with methanol over Mg–Zn mixed metal oxide catalysts. Energy, 49, pp.12-18.
7.     Fazal, M.A., Haseeb, A.S.M.A. and Masjuki, H.H., 2011. Biodiesel feasibility study: an evaluation of material compatibility; performance; emission and engine durability. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(2), pp.1314-1324.
8.     Bari, S., Yu, C.W. and Lim, T.H., 2002. Performance deterioration and durability issues while running a diesel engine with crude palm oil. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 216(9), pp.785-79.
9.     Saravanan, S., Nagarajan, G., Rao, G.L.N. and Sampath, S., 2007. Feasibility study of crude rice bran oil as a diesel substitute in a DI-CI engine without modifications. Energy for Sustainable Development, 11(3), pp.83-92.
10.   Bajpai, D. and Tyagi, V.K., 2006. Biodiesel: source, production, composition, properties and its benefits. Journal of OLEo Science, 55(10), pp.487-502.
11.   Ciolkosz, D., 2015, January. What’s So Different about Biodiesel Fuel?. In Bioenergy, Academic Press, pp. 551-555.
12.   Hofman, V., 2003. Biodiesel fuel. NDSU Extension Service, North Dakota State University of Agriculture. Applied Science and US Department of Agriculture cooperating, Fargo, North Dakota.
13.   Diya’uddeen, B.H., Aziz, A.A., Daud, W.M.A.W. and Chakrabarti, M.H., 2012. Performance evaluation of biodiesel from used domestic waste oils: a review. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 90(3), pp.164-179.
14.   Lapuerta, M., Rodríguez-Fernández, J. and Agudelo, J.R., 2008. Diesel particulate emissions from used cooking oil biodiesel. Bioresource Technology, 99(4), pp.731-740.
15.   Cetinkaya, M., Ulusoy, Y., Tekìn, Y. and Karaosmanoğlu, F., 2005. Engine and winter road test performances of used cooking oil originated biodiesel. Energy Conversion and Management, 46(7-8), pp.1279-1291.
16.   Lin, Y.C., Lee, W.J., Wu, T.S. and Wang, C.T., 2006. Comparison of PAH and regulated harmful matter emissions from biodiesel blends and paraffinic fuel blends on engine accumulated mileage test. Fuel, 85(17-18), pp.2516-2523.
17.   Usta, N., 2005. Use of tobacco seed oil methyl ester in a turbocharged indirect injection diesel engine. Biomass and Bioenergy, 28(1), pp.77-86.
18.   Yücesu, H.S. and İlkiliç, C., 2006. Effect of cotton seed oil methyl ester on the performance and exhaust emission of a diesel engine. Energy Sources, Part A, 28(4), pp.389-398.
19.   Powell, J.J., 2010. Engine performance and exhaust emissions from a diesel engine using cottonseed oil biodiesel. Doctoral dissertation, Texas A & M University, United States.
20.   Ajala, E.O., Olaniyan, A.M., Aberuagba, F., Ajala, M.A. and Odewole, M.M., 2017. One-pot synthesis of biodiesel from high FFA shea butter in an optimisation study using response surface methodology. Biofuels, pp.1-8.
21.   Bello, E.I., Akinola, A.O., Otu, F. and Owoyemi, T.J., 2013. Fuel and Physiochemical Properties of Cashew (Anarcardium 1 occidentale) Nut Oil, Its Biodiesel and Blends with Diesel. Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology, pp.1055-1069.
22.   Odin, E.M., Onoja, P.K. and Ochala, A.U., 2013. Effect of process variables on biodiesel production via transesterification of Quassia undulata seed oil, using homogeneous catalyst. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 2(9), pp.267-276.
23.   Rao, G.L.N., Ramadhas, A.S., Nallusamy, N. and Sakthivel, P., 2010. Relationships among the physical properties of biodiesel and engine fuel system design requirement. International Journal of Energy and Environment, 1(5), pp.919-926.
24.   Sivaramakrishnan, K. and Ravikumar, P., 2011. Determination of higher heating value of biodiesels. International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 3(11), pp.7981-7987.
25.   Nitièma-Yefanova, S., Poupaert, J. H., Mignolet, E., Nébié, R. C. H., and Bonzi-Coulibaly, L. Y. (2012). Characterization of some nonconventional oils from Burkina Faso. Journal de la Société Ouest-Africaine de Chimie, 33, pp. 67-71.
26.   Ajala, E.O., Aberuagba, F., Olaniyan, A.M. and Onifade, K.R., 2015. Comparative study of acid-base and base catalysed processes of biodiesel production using high FFA shea butter. Journal of Basic and Applied Research International, 11, pp.87-96.
27.   Bello, E.I., Mogaji, T.S. and Agge, M., 2011. The effects of transesterification on selected fuel properties of three vegetable oils. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research, 3(7), pp.218-225.
28.   Ghosh, S. and Dutta, D., 2012. Performance and exhaust emission analysis of direct injection diesel engine using pongamia oil. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 2(12), pp.341-346.
29.   Younis, K.A., Gardy, J.L. and Barzinji, K.S., 2014. Production and characterization of biodiesel from locally sourced sesame seed oil, used cooking oil and other commercial vegetable oils in Erbil-Iraqi Kurdistan. American Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2, pp. 105-111.
30.   Chakrabarti, M.H. and Ali, M., 2009. Performance of compression ignition engine with Indigenous castor oil bio diesel in Pakistan. NED University Journal of Research, 6(1), pp.10-20.
31.   Mishra, P.C., Nayak, S.K., Ghosh, D.P., Ukamanal, M. and Sahu, S.K., 2013. Performance characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel produced from mahua oil using additive. IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE), 8, pp.26-34.
32.   Eze, J.I. and Elijah, I.R., 2010. Tested performance parameters of diesel fuel and transesterified shea nut oil blends in compression ignition engine. Global Journal of Researches in Engineering, 10, pp.84-92.
33.   Buyukkaya, E., 2010. Effects of biodiesel on a DI diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics. Fuel, 89(10), pp.3099-3105.
34.   Myint, L.L. and El-Halwagi, M.M., 2009. Process analysis and optimization of biodiesel production from soybean oil. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 11(3), pp.263-276.
35.   Harinathareddy, M., Nageswara Reddy, P. and Vijayakumar Reddy, K., 2013. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operated on Mahua Oil Methyl Ester, Elixir Mechanical Engineering, 55, pp.12978-12982.
36.   Knothe, G., 2006. Analyzing biodiesel: standards and other methods. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 83(10), pp.823-833.
37.   Refaat, A.A., 2009. Correlation between the chemical structure of biodiesel and its physical properties. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 6(4), pp.677-694.
38.   Zheng, M., Mulenga, M.C., Reader, G.T., Wang, M., Ting, D.S. and Tjong, J., 2008. Biodiesel engine performance and emissions in low temperature combustion. Fuel, 87(6), pp.714-722.