Document Type : Technical Note


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, N.B.N. Sinhgad College of Engineering, Maharashtra, India

2 School of Mechatronics Engineering, Symbiosis Skills & Open University, Pune, Maharashtra, India

3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, KIT’s College of Engineering, Maharashtra, India


Rapid development of the global economy demands huge amount of Energy. Transportation sector contributes major part of economy development. Fossil fuels like Petrol and Diesel are used for transportation and heavy duty vehicles. Higher rate of consumption of these naturally available fuels leads to its depletion and deterioration of environment. To solve such issue many researchers are interested in identifying and using alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Biodiesel is renewable fuel and can be used as alternative fuel for Diesel engines. In present work Canola oil based Biodiesel (COB) is blended in Diesel with different concentration like B20, B40 and B60. Engine input variables like compression ratio (13:1, 15:1, 17:1) and load (4, 8,12kg) are considered to optimize the results. The Performance of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Diesel Engine is evaluated using Taguchi method. Analysis of variance is conducted to recognise the significance of input variables on Brake Thermal Efficiency, Brake power Specific Fuel Consumption. Results of optimization showed that load is the most crucial factor which affects the engine performance i.e. Increase in load decrease the Brake Thermal Efficiency, Brake Power and increases the Specific Fuel Consumption.


  1. Huang, D., Zhou, H. and Lin, L., 2012. Biodiesel: an alternative to conventional fuel. Energy Procedia, 16, pp.1874-1885.
  2. Semin, R.A.B., 2008. A technical review of compressed natural gas as an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 1(4), pp.302-311.
  3. Brynolf, S., Fridell, E. and Andersson, K., 2014. Environmental assessment of marine fuels: liquefied natural gas, liquefied biogas, methanol and bio-methanol. Journal of Cleaner Production,74, pp.86-95.
  4. Prasad, S., Singh, A. and Joshi, H.C., 2007. Ethanol as an alternative fuel from agricultural, industrial and urban residues. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 50(1), pp.1-39.
  5. Henham, A. and Makkar, M.K., 1998. Combustion of simulated biogas in a dual-fuel diesel engine. Energy Conversion and Management, 39(16-18), pp.2001-2009.
  6. Varuvel, E.G., Mrad, N., Tazerout, M. and Aloui, F., 2012. Experimental analysis of biofuel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Applied Energy, 94, pp.224-231.
  7. Demirbas, A., 2008. Biofuels sources, biofuel policy, biofuel economy and global biofuel projections. Energy Conversion and Management, 49(8), pp.2106-2116.
  8. Canakci, M. and Van Gerpen, J.H., 2003. Comparison of engine performance and emissions for petroleum diesel fuel, yellow grease biodiesel, and soybean oil biodiesel. Transactions of the ASAE, 46(4), pp.937-944.
  9. Knothe, G., Van Gerpen, J.H. and Krahl, J., 2005. The biodiesel handbook (Vol. 1). Champaign, IL: AOCS press.
  10. Demirbas, A., 2009. Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review. Applied Energy, 86, pp.S108-S117.
  11. Hu, J., Du, Z., Li, C. and Min, E., 2005. Study on the lubrication properties of biodiesel as fuel lubricity enhancers. Fuel, 84(12-13), pp.1601-1606.
  12. Demirbas, A., 2008. Biodiesel. Springer London.
  13. Ma, F. and Hanna, M.A., 1999. Biodiesel production: a review. Bioresource Technology, 70(1), pp.1-15.
  14. Šimáček, P., Kubička, D., Šebor, G. and Pospíšil, M., 2009. Hydroprocessed rapeseed oil as a source of hydrocarbon-based biodiesel. Fuel, 88(3), pp.456-460.
  15. Mofijur, M., Masjuki, H.H., Kalam, M.A., Atabani, A.E., Fattah, I.R. and Mobarak, H.M., 2014. Comparative evaluation of performance and emission characteristics of Moringa oleifera and Palm oil-based biodiesel in a diesel engine. Industrial Crops and Products, 53, pp.78-84.
  16. Al-Widyan, M.I. and Al-Shyoukh, A.O., 2002. Experimental evaluation of the transesterification of waste palm oil into biodiesel. Bioresource Technology, 85(3), pp.253-256.
  17. Ahmad, A.L., Yasin, N.M., Derek, C.J.C. and Lim, J.K., 2011. Microalgae as a sustainable energy source for biodiesel production: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(1), pp.584-593.
  18. Chen, Y.H., Huang, B.Y., Chiang, T.H. and Tang, T.C., 2012. Fuel properties of microalgae (Chlorella protothecoides) oil biodiesel and its blends with petroleum diesel. Fuel, 94, pp.270-273.
  19. Sahoo, P.K. and Das, L.M., 2009. Combustion analysis of Jatropha, Karanja and Polanga based biodiesel as fuel in a diesel engine. Fuel, 88(6), pp.994-999.
  20. Sahoo, P.K., Das, L.M., Babu, M.K.G., Arora, P., Singh, V.P., Kumar, N.R. and Varyani, T.S., 2009. Comparative evaluation of performance and emission characteristics of jatropha, karanja and polanga based biodiesel as fuel in a tractor engine. Fuel, 88(9), pp.1698-1707.
  21. Van Gerpen, J., 2005. Biodiesel processing and production. Fuel Processing Technology, 86(10), pp.1097-1107.
  22. Groschen, R., 2002. Overview of the feasibility of biodiesel from waste/recycled greases and animal fats. Minnesota Department of Agriculture. wastefatsfeasability.pdf.
  23. Ozsezen, A.N., Canakci, M., Turkcan, A. and Sayin, C., 2009. Performance and combustion characteristics of a DI diesel engine fueled with waste palm oil and canola oil methyl esters. Fuel, 88(4), pp.629-636.
  24. Graboski, M.S. and McCormick, R.L., 1998. Combustion of fat and vegetable oil derived fuels in diesel engines. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 24(2), pp.125-164.
  25. Prathmesh Mahesh, S. and B Kulkarni India, H., Evaluation of Performance Characteristics and Exhaust Gas Analysis of VCR Engine at Different Compression Ratio and Loads (Research note). Iranian Journal of Energy and Environment, 8(3), pp.230-233.
  26. Roy, R.K., 2010. A primer on the Taguchi method. Society of Manufacturing Engineers.
  27. Kackar, R.N., 1985. Off-line quality control, parameter design, and the Taguchi method. Journal of Quality Technology, 17(4), pp.176-188.
  28. Gopalsamy, B.M., Mondal, B. and Ghosh, S., 2009. Taguchi method and ANOVA: An approach for process parameters optimization ofhard machining while machining hardened steel. Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, 68, pp.686-695.
  29. Tsui, K.L., 1992. An overview of Taguchi method and newly developed statistical methods for robust design. Iie Transactions, 24(5), pp.44-57.
  30. Vellaiyan, S., Subbiah, A. and Chockalingam, P., 2019. Multi-response optimization to obtain better performance and emission level in a diesel engine fueled with water-biodiesel emulsion fuel and nanoadditive. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(5), pp.4833-4841.
  31. Modi, M.A., Patel, T.M. and Rathod, G.P., 2014. Parametric optimization of single cylinder diesel engine for palm seed oil & diesel blend for brake thermal efficiency using Taguchi method. IOSR Journal of Engineering, 4(5), pp.49-54.
  32. Kshirsagar, G., 2016. Parametric optimization of abrasive water jet machining of inconel-718 material. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 3(8), pp.1236-1242.
  33. Rao, S.R. and Padmanabhan, G., 2012. Application of Taguchi methods and ANOVA in optimization of process parameters for metal removal rate in electrochemical machining of Al/5% SiC composites. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), 2(3), pp.192-197.
  34. Patil, R.J., Kubade, P.R. and Kulkarni, H.B., 2019, December. Optimization of machine shop layout by using flexsim software. In 1st International Conference on Manufacturing, Material Science and Engineering, AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 2200, No. 1), pp. 020033.1- 020033.14.
  35. Kulkarni, H.B. and Kubade, P.R., 2020. Performance Optimization of VCR Diesel Engine Using Soybean Oil-Based Biodiesel. In Emerging Trends in Mechanical Engineering, Springer, Singapore, pp. 365-375.