Assessment the Potential Impacts of Urbanization: Case of Jimma City

Document Type : Research Note


Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Jimma Institute of Technology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia


Currently the effect of urban discharges on water quantity and quality issues and additional recreational amenities perceived in the urban landscape have gained growing public interest for the provision of sustainable urban development. This is due to the fact that urbanization is converging to challenge city infrastructure due to their adverse impacts on precipitation extremes and the environment of urban areas at large. This study was aimed at identification of the treats of urban expansion and prediction of the environmental responses to urbanization of Jimma City. This is an important input for the decision of environmentalists, hydrologists, storm and waste water management for the better plan and sustainable development of the city. The study analysis of stream flow indicates, urbanization was found to be one of the responsible factors for changing the surface of the land disturbing the hydrological process of Jimma City by altering the magnitude of surface runoff, aquifer recharge and river flows. The expansion of Jimma city have intensified, surface water discharges from developed areas and uncontrolled waste release which have affected the social, environmental and economic state of the area. Increased flood peaks, water volume and pollutant loads, reduced ground water recharge were found to be the major sources water quantity and quality degradation. Degraded water quantity and quality in turn resulted in water crisis, ecological risk, reduced quality of life and reduced level of ecosystem service.


1.   Zhou, Q., 2014, A review of sustainable urban drainage systems considering the climate change and urbanization impacts, Water, 6(4), pp.976-992.
2.   Singh, P., Kikon, N. and Verma, P., 2017, Impact of land use change and urbanization on urban heat island in Lucknow city, Central India. A remote sensing based estimate, Sustainable Cities and Society, 32, pp.100-114.
3.   Grimm, A., 2007, The extent to which sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) are considered in environmental impact assessment (EIA), M.Sc.Thesis, University of East Anglia.
4.   O’Driscoll, M., Clinton, S., Jefferson, A., Manda, A. and McMillan, S., 2010, Urbanization effects on watershed hydrology and in-stream processes in the southern United States, Water, 2(3), pp.605-648.
5.   Zhou, Q., Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K., Mikkelsen, P.S., Nielsen, S.B. and Halsnæs, K., 2012, Urban drainage design and climate change adaptation decision making, PhD. Thesis, DTU Environment.
6.   Belete, D.A., 2011, Road and urban storm water drainage network integration in Addis Ababa: Addis Ketema Sub-city, Journal of Engineering and Technology Research, 3(7), pp.217-225.
7.   Chocat, B., Krebs, P., Marsalek, J., Rauch, W. and Schilling, W., 2001, Urban drainage redefined: from stormwater removal to integrated management, Water Science and Technology, 43(5), pp.61-68.
8.   Miguez, M.G., Veról, A.P. and Carneiro, P.R.F., 2012, Sustainable drainage systems: an integrated approach, combining hydraulic engineering design, urban land control and river revitalisation aspects, In Drainage systems, IntechOpen.
9.   Hatt, B.E., Fletcher, T.D., Walsh, C.J. and Taylor, S.L., 2004, The influence of urban density and drainage infrastructure on the concentrations and loads of pollutants in small streams, Environmental management, 34(1), pp.112-124.
10. Dibaba, W.T., 2018, A review of sustainability of urban drainage system: traits and consequences, Journal of Sedimentary Environments, 3(3), pp.131-137.