Effects of Operating Conditions on Performance of a Spark Ignition Engine Fueled with Ethanol-Gasoline Blend

Document Type: Original Article


Department of Fluid Mechanics, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran


Nowadays, two main deals of researchers in different fields of industries are emissions and fuel consumption. The political turmoil of crude oil besides stricter environmental laws in the world tends researchers to find novel ways for fuel consumption and emissions reduction. Using Ethanol-Gasoline blend as fuel in spark ignition engines is considered as a promising idea to achieve this goal for internal combustion engines industries. Providing a model to investigate the performance of Ethanol-Gasoline fueled engine in different operating conditions is still needed to reduce experimental test costs. In this study, a thermodynamic model of ethanol-gasoline fueled spark ignition engine is provided and the effects of operating conditions on engine performance are investigated in detail after validating simulation results via experimental data. Results show the provided model generates reliable data of engine performance in the full range of fuel composition, from pure ethanol to pure gasoline. In addition, studied engine produces maximum power besides best fuel consumption when it is run at 3000 rates per minute. Also, the best performance is achieved with E-45 composition while NOx emission raise 60 percent in comparison to pure gasoline. So, it can be introduced as design point for studied engine.


  1. Sorda, G., Banse, M. and Kemfert, C., 2010. An overview of biofuel policies across the world. Energy policy, 38(11), pp.6977-6988. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2010.06.066.
  2. Balat, M., 2007. An overview of biofuels and policies in the European Union. Energy Sources, Part B, 2(2), pp.167-181.
  3. Mann, J., Daubin, M.S. and Bocarsly, A.B., 2004. Catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells. Preprints of Papers, American Chemical Society, Division of Fuel Chemistry, 49(2), pp.662-663.
  4. Li, M., Huang, H.B., Wang, R.Z., Wang, L.L., Cai, W.D. and Yang, W.M., 2004. Experimental study on adsorbent of activated carbon with refrigerant of methanol and ethanol for solar ice maker. Renewable Energy, 29(15), pp.2235-2244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2004.04.006
  5. Palmer, F.H., 1986, November. Vehicle performance of gasoline containing oxygenates. In International Conference on Petroleum Based Fuels and Automotive Applications. IMECHE Conference Publications 1986-11. Paper No. C319/86. http://worldcat.org/isbn/0852985975
  6. Balat, M., 2007. Global bio-fuel processing and production trends. Energy Exploration & Exploitation, 25(3), pp.195-218. https://doi.org/10.1260/014459807782009204
  7. Hsieh, W.D., Chen, R.H., Wu, T.L. and Lin, T.H., 2002. Engine performance and pollutant emission of an SI engine using ethanol–gasoline blended fuels. Atmospheric Environment, 36(3), pp.403-410. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00508-8
  8. Li, Y., Meng, L., Nithyanandan, K., Lee, T.H., Lin, Y., Chia-fon, F.L. and Liao, S., 2016. Combustion, performance and emissions characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with isopropanol-n-butanol-ethanol and gasoline blends. Fuel, 184, pp.864-872. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2016.07.063
  9. Phuangwongtrakul, S., Wechsatol, W., Sethaput, T., Suktang, K. and Wongwises, S., 2016. Experimental study on sparking ignition engine performance for optimal mixing ratio of ethanol–gasoline blended fuels. Applied Thermal Engineering, 100, pp.869-879. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng..02.084
  10. Raj, M.T. and Kandasamy, M.K.K., 2012. Tamanu oil-an alternative fuel for variable compression ratio engine. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, 3(1), p.18.https://doi.org/10.1186/2251-6832-3-18
  11. Namar, M.M. and Jahanian, O., 2017. A simple algebraic model for predicting HCCI auto-ignition timing according to control oriented models requirements. Energy Conversion and Management, 154, pp.38-45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2017.10.056
  12. Jahanian, O. and Jazayeri, S.A., 2011. A Numerical Investigation on the Effects of Using for Maldehyde as an Additive on the Performance of an HCCI Engine Fueled With Natural Gas. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering (IJEEE), 173, pp.79-89.
  13. Sheikholeslami, M., 2015. Effect of uniform suction on nanofluid flow and heat transfer over a cylinder. Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 37(6), pp.1623-1633. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40430-014-0242-z
  14. Merola, S.S., Tornatore, C., Marchitto, L., Valentino, G. and Corcione, F.E., 2012. Experimental investigations of butanol-gasoline blends effects on the combustion process in a SI engine. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, 3(1), p.6.https://doi.org/10.1186/2251-6832-3-6
  15. Thakur, A.K., Kaviti, A.K., Mehra, R. and Mer, K.K.S., 2017. Progress in performance analysis of ethanol-gasoline blends on SI engine. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 69, pp.324-340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.056
  16. Raheman, H., Jena, P.C. and Jadav, S.S., 2013. Performance of a diesel engine with blends of biodiesel (from a mixture of oils) and high-speed diesel. International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, 4(1), p.6.https://doi.org/10.1186/2251-6832-4-6
  17. Foong, T.M., Brear, M.J., Morganti, K.J., da Silva, G., Yang, Y. and Dryer, F.L., 2017. Modeling End-Gas Autoignition of Ethanol/Gasoline Surrogate Blends in the Cooperative Fuel Research Engine. Energy & Fuels, 31(3), pp.2378-2389. DOI:10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b02380
  18. Basha, J.S. and Anand, R.B., 2013. The influence of nano additive blended biodiesel fuels on the working characteristics of a diesel engine. Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering, 35(3), pp.257-264. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40430-013-0023-0
  19. Jo, Y.S., Bromberg, L. and Heywood, J., 2016. Optimal Use of Ethanol in Dual Fuel Applications: Effects of Engine Downsizing, Spark Retard, and Compression Ratio on Fuel Economy. SAE International Journal of Engines, 9(2016-01-0786), pp.1087-1101. DOI:10.4271/2016-01-0786.
  20. Najafi, G., Ghobadian, B., Moosavian, A., Yusaf, T., Mamat, R., Kettner, M. and Azmi, W.H., 2016. SVM and ANFIS for prediction of performance and exhaust emissions of a SI engine with gasoline–ethanol blended fuels. Applied Thermal Engineering, 95, pp.186-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2015.11.009
  21. Iodice, P., Senatore, A., Langella, G. and Amoresano, A., 2016. Effect of ethanol–gasoline blends on CO and HC emissions in last generation SI engines within the cold-start transient: An experimental investigation. Applied Energy, 179, pp.182-190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.06.144
  22.  Thangavel, V., Momula, S.Y., Gosala, D.B. and Asvathanarayanan, R., 2016. Experimental studies on simultaneous injection of ethanol–gasoline and n-butanol–gasoline in the intake port of a four stroke SI engine. Renewable Energy, 91, pp.347-360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.01.074
  23. Akansu, S.O., Tangöz, S., Kahraman, N., İlhak, M.İ. and Açıkgöz, S., 2017. Experimental study of gasoline-ethanol-hydrogen blends combustion in an SI engine. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 42(40), pp.25781-25790. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.07.014
  24. Chadwick, M. B., Obložinský, P., Herman, M., Greene, N. M., McKnight, R. D., Smith, D. L., and Kahler, A. C. (2006). ENDF/B-VII. 0: next generation evaluated nuclear data library for nuclear science and technology. Nuclear data sheets, 107(12), 2931-3060.
  25. White, F.M., 1999. Fluid mechanics, WCB. Ed McGraw-Hill Boston.
  26. Sonntag, R.E., Borgnakke, C., Van Wylen, G.J. and Van Wyk, S., 2003. Fundamentals of thermodynamics (pp. 399-400). New York: Wiley.
  27. Nikuradse, J., 1950. Laws of flow in rough pipes. Washington: National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
  28.  Heywood, J. B. (1988). Combustion in compression-ignition engines. Internal combustion engine fundamentals, 522-562.
  29. Woschni, G., 1967. A universally applicable equation for the instantaneous heat transfer coefficient in the internal combustion engine (No. 670931). SAE Technical paper. https://doi.org/10.4271/670931
  30. Huang, Y., Hong, G. and Huang, R., 2015. Investigation to charge cooling effect and combustion characteristics of ethanol direct injection in a gasoline port injection engine. Applied Energy, 160,pp.244-254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.09.059