A Theoretical Detailed Analysis for a Proposed 5kW PV Grid-Connected System Installed in Iraq Using PVsyst Tool

Document Type: Original Article

Author

Independent Researcher, Former Lecturer at University of Baghdad, College of Engineering, Energy Engineering Department, Baghdad, Iraq

Abstract

In this study, PVsyst simulation software is used to analyze a PV grid tied system in a typical primary school in Iraq. The proposed system is 5kW which is affordable and applicable from the cost and required area points respectively. The monthly averaged electrical load for a typical school is approximately calculated. The system simulation has been done for thirteen Iraqi provinces while it is described and its performance is analyzed in details for Baghdad city as an example. The performance ratio for the system in Baghdad is 0.825 and about 9.82MWhr is generated by the system per year, 62.7% is consumed by the load and the remaining is injected to the national grid. The results showed that the initial capital cost is 5,442$ which is returned after five and a half years. The cost of 1 kWhr if the system operates for 10 years is 0.058$. This study clearly demonstrates that photovoltaic power system can effectively assist the peak load on the grid. In addition, these systems are very economical/no maintenance project and can be hooked to any the peak time load.

Keywords


  1. Nowak, S., 2004, "Trends in Photovoltaic Applications: Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2003." Proceedings of the International Energy Agency Photovoltaic Power Systems Program (IEA-PVPS).
  2. Kerekes, T., Koutroulis, E., Séra, D., Teodorescu, R. and Katsanevakis, M., 2013,"An Optimization Method for Designing Large PV Plants". IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 3(2), pp.814-822.
  3. Partain, L. D., 1995,” Solar cell fundamentals. Solar Cells and Their Applications”, ed. LD Partain, Wiley.
  4. Eltawil, M. A., and Zhao Z., 2010, "Grid-connected photovoltaic power systems: Technical and potential problems—A review." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 14, no. 1, pp. 112-129.
  5. Bojic, M., Blagojevic, M., 2006, “Photovoltaic electricity production of a grad-connected urban house in Serbia”. Energy Policy;34(17), pp. 2941–8.
  6. Fernández-Infantes A, Contreras J, Bernal-Agustín JL. , 2006, “Design of grid connected PV systems considering electrical, economical and environmental aspects: a practical case”. Renew Energy; 31(13), pp.2042–62.
  7.  Bialasiewicz, J.T., 2008, “Renewable energy system with photovoltaic power generators: Operation and modeling”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 55, pp. 2752-2758.
  8. King, D.L., 1997, “Photovoltaic module and array performance characterization methods for all system operating conditions”. In: NREL/SNL photovoltaics program review—Proceedings of the 14th conference—a joint meeting, vol. 394; pp. 347–368.
  9. Ali, A.H.H., Zeid, H.A.S. and AlFadhli, H.M., 2017," Energy performance, environmental impact, and cost assessments of a photovoltaic plant under Kuwait climate condition" Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments, Vol. 22, pp. 25–33.
  10. Al-Hasan, A. Y., A. A. Ghoneim, and A. H. Abdullah. , 2004,"Optimizing electrical load pattern in Kuwait using grid connected photovoltaic systems" Energy conversion and management 45, no. 4, pp. 483-494.
  11. Hammad, M., Ebaid, M.S., Halaseh, G. and Erekat, B., 2015, "Large Scale Grid Connected (20MW) Photovoltaic System for Peak Load Shaving in Sahab Industrial District", Jordan J. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering (JJMIE), Vol. 9, Issue 1, pp. 45-59.
  12. M. S. Hassan, Adel A. Elbaset, 2015, "A Comparative Study for Optimum Design of Grid Connected PV System based on Actual System Specifications”, International Journal of Computer Applications. Vol. 116, Issue 3, pp. 19-34.
  13. Rehman, S., Ahmed, M.A., Mohamed, M.H. and Al-Sulaiman, F.A., 2017," Feasibility study of the grid connected 10 MW installed capacity PV power plants in Saudi Arabia" Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 80, pp.319–329.
  14. Celik, A. N. "Present status of photovoltaic energy in Turkey and life cycle techno-economic analysis of a grid-connected photovoltaic-house." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 10, no. 4 (2006), pp.370-387.
  15. Kazem, H. A., Albadi, M.H., Al-Waeli, A. H.A., Al-Busaidid A. H., Chaichane, M. T., 2017, " Techno-economic feasibility analysis of 1 MW photovoltaic grid connected system in Oman" Case Studies in Thermal Engineering, Vol.10, pp.131 –141
  16. Al-Sabounchi, A. M., Yalyali, S. A. and Al-Thani, H. A.,2013,"Design and performance evaluation of a photovoltaic grid-connected system in hot weather conditions." Renewable energy 53, pp. 71-78.
  17. Kazem, H. A., and M. T. Chaichan. ,2012,"Status and future prospects of renewable energy in Iraq." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16, no. 8, pp.6007-6012.
  18. General Electric, 2003, "Iraq Exploration Team Trip Report", briefing slides.
  19. Allen, N., Hazlett, S. and Nerlinger, M., 2009,"Smart grid: the next infrastructure revolution". New York: Morgan Stanley.
  20. Abed, F.M., Al-Douri, Y. and Al-Shahery, G.M., 2014,"Review on the energy and renewable energy status in Iraq: The outlooks" Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 39, pp. 816-827.
  21. http://cosit.gov.iq/ar/60-press-releases/667-57-2014
  22. http://www.moedu.gov.iq/upload/upfile/ar/131.xlsx
  23. R. Tallab and A. Malek. ,2015, "Predict system efficiency of 1 MWc photovoltaic power plant interconnected to the distribution network using PVSYST software". In Proceedings of 2015 3rd International Renewable and Sustainable Energy Conference (IRSEC), Marrakech, Morocco; pp. 1 -4.
  24. Shiva Kumar, B. and Sudhakar, K. ,2015, "Performance evaluation of 10 MW grid connected solar photovoltaic power plant in India". Energy Reports; 1, pp. 184-192.
  25. Irwan, Y. M., Amelia, A. R., Irwanto, M., Fareq. M, Leow, W. Z., Gomesh, N., Safwati I., 2015, "Stand-alone photovoltaic (SAPV) system assessment using PVSYST software". Energy Procedia; 79, pp.596-603.
  26. Matiyali, K. and Ashok, A. ,2016,"Performance evaluation of grid connected solar PV power plant". In Proceedings of 2016 2nd International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication, & Automation (ICACCA) (fall), Bareilly; pp: 1 -5.
  27. Nirwan, D. and Thakur, T., 2017,"Performance Evaluation of Grid Connected Solar PV Plant Using PVsyst" International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) Volume: 04 Issue: 05.,pp.3190-3194.
  28. http://www.pvsyst.com/en/publications/meteo-data-sources
  29. Duffie, J. A., and Beckman, W. A., 2013,"Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes", John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 4th Edition,
  30. Häberlin, H., 2012, "Photovoltaics system design and practice": John Wiley & Sons.
  31. Wang, U., 2011, "The rise of concentrating solar thermal power". Renewable Energy World, 6.
  32. Li, D.H., Cheung, K.L., Lam, T.N. and Chan, W.W., 2012. "A study of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system in Hong Kong". Applied Energy, 90(1), pp.122-127.
  33. Messenger, R. A., and Ventre, J., 2010,"Photovoltaic Systems Engineering" 3th Edition, Taylor & Francis Group, (LLC).
  34. http://en.sungrowpower.com/sungrow/about
  35. Al-Khazzar A. A. A., 2017, "The Required Land Area for Installing a Photovoltaic Power Plant”, Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment 8, 1, pp.11 – 17
  36. https://moelc.gov.iq/upload/upfile/ar/449.pdf
  37. https://moelc.gov.iq/upload/upfile/ar/823.pdf
  38. http://files.pvsyst.com/help/index.html
  39. Perez, R., Seals, R., Ineichen, P., Stewart, R. and Menicucci, D., 1987, "A new simplified version of the Perez diffuse irradiance model for tilted surfaces". Solar energy, 39(3), pp.221-231.
  40. JRC, 1993, "Guidelines for the assessment of photovoltaic plants", Document B, Analysis and presentation of monitoring data, Issue 4.1. Joint Research Centre,Ispra, Italy.
  41. Agai, F., Caka, N. and Komoni, V., 2011. "Design optimization and simulation of the photovoltaic systems on buildings in southeast Europe". International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, 1(5), pp.58-68.
  42. Tarigan, E. and Kartikasari, F.D., 2015. "Techno-economic simulation of a grid-connected PV system design as specifically applied to residential in Surabaya, Indonesia". Energy Procedia, 65, pp.90-99.
  43. Bharathkumar, M., and H. V. Byregowda., 2014, "Performance Evaluation of 5 MW Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant Established in Karnataka." International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology 3, no. 6, pp.13862-13868.
  44. Yoo, S.H. and Lee, E.T., 2002, "Efficiency characteristic of building integrated photovoltaics as a shading device". Build Environ; 37(6), pp.615–623
  45. Nochang, P., Changwoon, H., Wonsik, H., Donghwan, K., 2011, “The effect of encapsulant delamination on electrical performance of PV module”, 37th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Seattle, Washington. pp. 1113-1115.
  46. Quintana, M. A., D. L. King, T. J. McMahon, C. R. Osterwald. 2002, “Commonly observed degradation in field-aged photovoltaic modules”, 29th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 1436-1439,
  47. Rehman, S., Bader, M. A., Al-Moallem, S. A., 2007, "Cost of solar energy generated using PV panels". Renew Sustain Energy Rev;11(8), pp. 1843–57.
  48. Edalati, S., Ameri, M., Iranmanesh, M., Tarmahi, H. and Gholampour, M., 2016. "Technical and economic assessments of grid-connected photovoltaic power plants: Iran case study". Energy, 114, pp.923-934.
  49. Sangwongwanich, A., Yang, Y., Sera, D. and Blaabjerg, F., 2018. "Lifetime evaluation of grid-connected PV inverters considering panel degradation rates and installation sites". IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 33(2), pp.1225-1236.