Bioremediation of Contaminated Clay Soils

Authors

1 Mineral Industries Research Center, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Chemical and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

Abstract

This research work demonstrates the feasibility of accelerating bioremediation of a clay soil by supplementing with (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, sucrose (as an inducer for growth) and tween 80. The soil contained 7% residual gasoil. The bioremediation was stimulated by moisture adjustment to 10%, and inoculating with hydrocarbon degrading microorganisms. (NH4)2SO4 and KH2PO4 were added to the soil to obtain soil samples with C:N:P ratios of 100:1.4:1.4, 100:6.4:1.9, 100:11.4:2.4, and 100:21.4:3.4. The C:N:P of 100:11.4:2.4 resulted in more than 78% gasoil removal for duration of two months. Tween 80, in the range of 0-20mL/ (kg soil), was added to the soil samples with C:N:P ratio of 100:1.4:1.4. More than 84% removal was achieved when 10 mL/kg tween 80 was added to the soil. Sucrose, in the range of 0-20 g/(kg soil), was added to the soil samples with the C:N:P ratio of 100:1.4:1.4. For the sucrose level of 20 g/(kg soil), 79% removal was obtained in two months. Additional experiment was also conducted at two porosity levels of 54% and 22%. The removal percentage in the soil with high porosity was almost twice as compared to soil with low porosity.

Keywords


Abedi-Koupai, J., R. Ezzatian, M. Vossoughi-Shavari, S. Yaghmaei and M. Borghei, 2007. The effects of microbial population on phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils using tall fescue. International Journal of Agricultural Biology, 9(2): 242–246
Carman, K.R., J.W. Fleeger and S.M. Pomarico, 2000. Does historical exposure to hydrocarbon contamination alter the response of benthic communities to diesel contamination? Marine Environmental Research, 49(2):255–27.
Pritchard, P.H., J.G. Mueller, J.C. Rogers,F.V. Kremer and J.A. Glaser,1992. Oil spill bioremediation: experiences, lessons and results from the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska. Biodegradation, 3: 315-335.
Nikolopoulou, M. and N. Kalogerakis, 2008. Enhanced bioremediation of crude oil utilizing lipophilic fertilizers combined with biosurfactants and molasses. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 56:1855–1861.
Laha, S., B. Tansel and A. Ussawarujikulchai, 2009. Surfactant–soil interactions during surfactant amended remediation of contaminated soils by hydrophobic organic compounds: a review. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(1): 95–100.
Tiehm, A., M. Stieber, P. Werner and F.H. Frimmel, 1997. Surfactant-enhanced mobilization and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant soil. Environmental Science and Technology, 31(9): 2570–2576.
Makkar, R. and K. Rockne, 2003. Comparison of synthetic surfactants and biosurfactant in enhancing biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 22(10): 2280-2292. 
Kim, H.S. and W.J. Weber, 2005. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon behavior in bioactive soil slurry reactors amended with a nonionic surfactant. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24(2): 268-276.
Makkar, R.S. and K.J. Rockne, 2003. Comparison of synthetic surfactants and biosurfactant in enhancing biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environmental. Toxicology and Chemistry, 22(10):2280-2292.
Obuekwe, C., Z.K. Al-Jadi and E. Al-Saleh, 2009. Hydrocarbon degradation in relation to cell-surface hydrophobicity among bacterial hydrocarbon degraders from petroleum-contaminated Kuwait desert environment. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 63(3): 273–279
Paria, S.2008. Surfactant-enhanced remediation of organic contaminated soil and water. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 138(1): 24–58.
Urum, K., and T. Pekdemir, 2004. Evaluation of biosurfactant for crude oil contaminated soil washing. Chemosphere, 57(9)1139-1150.
Yu, H., L. Zhu and W. Zhou, 2007. Enhanced desorption and biodegradation of phenanthrene in soil-water systems with the presence of anionic-nonionic mixed surfactants. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 142(2): 354-361.   
Akbari, A. and G. Subhasis, 2015. Bioaccessible porosity in Soil aggregates and implications for biodegradation of high molecular weight petroleum compounds. Environmental Science and Technology, 49(24): 14368−14375.
Haghollahi, A., M.H. Fazaelipoor and M. Schaffie, 2016. The effect of soil type on the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soils. Journal of Environmental Management, 180:197–201.
Lee, S.H., S. Lee, D.Y. Kim and J.G. Kim, 2007. Degradation characteristics of waste lubricants under different nutrient condition. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 143:  65-72.
Hesnawi, R.M. and M.M. Adbeib, 2013. Effect of nutrient source on indigenous biodegradation of diesel fuel contaminated soil. APCBEE Procedia, 5:557-561.
Singh, R.P., G. Dhania, A. Sharma and P.K. Jaiwal, 2007. Biotechnological approaches to improve phytoremediation efficiency for environment contaminants. Environmental bioremediation technologies. Springer.
Kim, I.S., J.S. Park and K.W Kim, 2001. Enhanced biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using non-ionic surfactants in soil slurry. Appllied. Geochemistry, 16:1419-1428.
Sihag, S., H. Pathak and D.P. Jaroli, 2014. Factors affecting the rate of biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. International journal of  Pure and Applied Bioscience, 2:185-202