Comparative Assessment of Total Hydrocarbon Content and Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Sarotherodon Melanotheron at Atlas Cove Area and Okobaba of Lagos Lagoon

Document Type: Research Note

Authors

Department of Marine Sciences, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria

Abstract

Industrial waste discharge has increased the hazard of water pollution. The total hydrocarbon content and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Sarotherodon melanotheron at Atlas cove area and at Okobaba end of Lagoon Lagos were assessed between November, 2014 and January, 2015. The physicochemical parameters were determined according to APHA-AWWA-WEF and heavy metals in the fish species were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer. The total hydrocarbon content (THC) in the fish samples were analysed by using Soxhlet extraction gravimetric methods. The heavy metal values evaluated are Fe, Cr, Pb, Ni and Cu. The concentration of Iron (Fe)  in Sarotherodon melanotheron was 72.72 ± 125.95mg/kg, Chromium (Cr)- 10.29 ± 4.61mg/kg; Lead (Pb)- 1.08 ± 0.23mg/kg; Nickel (Ni)- 0.39 ± 0.26mg/kg; and Copper (Cu)- 0.20 ± 0.26mg/kg at Atlas cove area while at Okobaba the concentration were;Fe-115.98±87,Cr-5.25±1.02,Pb-2.04±1.50,Ni-0.78±0.08,and Cu is 0.36±0.15mg/kg. The levels of accumulation of all the heavy metals in Sarotherodon melanotheron were above the WHO permissible limits. The concentration of n- alkanes in Sarotherodon melanotheron at Atlas cove was 164.69 ± 97.04µg/g, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was 73.58 ± 72.48µg/g, and total petroleum hydrocarbon was 526.67 ± 214.34µg/g. The average intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon through fish consumption at Atlas cove area was estimated to be 5039.94 ± 49.2mg/kg; body weight/day. The mean concentration of n-alkanes hydrocarbon in Sarotherodon melanotheron at Okobaba was 152.62±54.11µg/g, the PolycyclicAromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) was 74.4±50.30 µg/g.The carcinogenic high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW-PAH) were of higher concentrations than the lower molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (LMW-PAH). Therefore, Atlas cove area is more exposed to carcinogenic health risks associated with the consumption of the studied fish than Okobaba end of Lagos Lagoon. This indicates significant carcinogenic health risks associated with the consumption of black jaw Tilapia fish caught from the study areas.

Keywords


  1. Ribes, A., Grimalt, J.O., Torres, C.J. and Cuevas, E. 2003. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mountain soils of the subtropical Atlantic. Journal of Environmental Quality. 32: 977- 987.
  2. Dhananjayan, V. and Muralidharan, S. 2012. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in various species of fishes from Mumbai harbor, India and their dietary intake concentration to Human. International Journal of Oceanography. 64: 51- 78.
  3. Rose, A., Ken, D., Kehinde, O. and Babajide, A. 2012. Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fish and invertebrates of Lagos lagoon, Nigeria. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences. 3(2):287- 296.
  4. Nkpaa, K.W., Wegwu, M.O. and Essien, E.B. 2013. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in two commercially important fish species from crude oil polluted waters of Ogoniland and their carcinogenic health risk. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 3(8):128- 137.
  5. Gabriel, U.U. and Kparobo, S. O. 2003. Acute toxicity of cypermethrin (a pyrethroid pesticide) on post fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus. Int. J. Agric. Rural Dev. 3: 144-149.
  6. Murtala, B.A, Abdul, W.O. and Akinyemi, A.A. 2012. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish (Hydrocynus forskahlii, Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis and Clarias gariepinus) organs in downstream Ogun coastal water, Nigeria. Transnational Journal of Science and Technology. 2(5): 119- 133.
  7. Eisler, R. 1988. Zink Hazards to Fish, Wildlife and Invertebrates: a Synoptic Review. US Fish Wildlife Service, Biology of Reproduction, 85pp.
  8. Neff, J.M. 2002. Bioaccumulation in Marine Organisms: Effect of Contaminants from Oil Well Produced Water. (1st Edition). Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam. 468pp.
  9. Ademoroti, C.M.A. 1996. Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, Foludex Press Ltd., Ibadan. 171- 204pp.
  10. Cusimano, R.F., Brakke, D.F. and Chapman, G.A. 1986. Effects of pH on the Toxicity of Cadmium, Copper and Zinc to Steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Can. J. Fish Aquat. Sci. 43: 1497- 1503.
  11. Heath, A.G. 1987. Water Pollution and Physiology, CRC press Inc., Boca Raton. 145 pp.
  12. Allen, P. 1995. Chronic Accumulation of Cadmium in the edible Tissues of Oreochromis aurus (Steindachner): Modification by Mercury and Lead. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 29: 8- 14.
  13. Karthikeyan, S., Palaniappan, P.L.R.M. and Sabhanayakan, S. 2007. Influence of pH and water hardness upon Nickel accumulation in edible fish Cirrhinus mrigala. J. Environ. Biol. 28: 484- 492.
  14. Adeyeye, E.I., Akinyugha, R.J., Febosi, M.E. and Tenabe, V.O. 1996. Determination of          some metals in Clarias gariepinus (Cuvier and Valenciemes), Cyprinus carpio (L) and Oreochromis niloticus (L) fishes in a polyculture fresh water pond and their environment. Aquaculture. 47: 205-214.
  15. Akpata, T. V. I. 1986. Pollution: Flora of some wetlands in Nigeria. Pp 130-137.    In: Nigerian     wetlands. Akpata T. V. I. and Okali, D. V. V. (Eds.). The Nigerian man and the Biosphere National Committee 1990. Emmi Press. Somonda, Ibadan. 198pp.
  16. APHA-AWWA-WEF. (2005). Standard methods for the examination of the water  and          wastewater,21st edition.  American Public Health Association Washington, D.C. 1368pp
  17. AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemistry. 16th    Edn., AOAC International, Washington, USA., Pages: 1141.
  18. UNEP 1992. Water quality Assessment. A guide to the use of biota, sediment and water in environmental monitoring. London, Chapman and Hill Publishers.
  19. WHO 1991. Inorganic Mercury. Environmental Health Criteria, Geneva 118:168-171.
  20. Beadle, L.C. 1974. The inland waters of tropical Africa. An introduction to Tropical Limnology. McGraw Hill Publishing Company, New York. 365pp.
  21. Reid, S.M. 1960. Fresh water plankton of West Africa. McGraw Hill Publishing Company, New York. 555pp.
  22. Webb, J.E. 1960. Biology of the Tropics. Nature. 188(4751): 617- 619.
  23. Nwankwo, D.I., Okedoyin, J.O. and Adesalu, T.A. 2012. Primary Productivity in Tidal Creeks of South- West Nigeria II. Comparative Study of Nutrient Status and Chlorophll- a variation in two Lagos Harbour creeks. World Journal of Biological research. 5(1): 41- 48.
  24. Sheriff M.K., Awadallah R.M. and Mohamed A.E. (1979). Determination of trace elements of Egyptian crops by neutron activation analysis: II. Trace elements in umbelliferae and legumirosae families. Journal of Radio analytical and Nuclear Chemistry 53 (1-2): 145-151
  25. Hawkes S.J. (1997). What is a “Heavy Metal”? Journal of Chemical Education. 74 (11):1374.
  26. Ayoola, S.O. and Dansu, F.M. 2014. The Impact of Heavy Metals on Haematological Parameters and Enzymatic Actives in Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus and Pythonichthys macrurus. World Applied Sciences Journal. 31 (5): 794- 800.
  27. Olaji, E.D., Nwogu, N.A., Yakubu, A.F. and Olaji, C.O. 2014. Assessment of Total Hydrocarbon Concentration in Four Fish Species of Degele Community, Nigeria and Their Dietary Intake in the Populace. Advances in Research. 2(2): 109- 118.
  28. GESAMP. 1982. The health of the Ocean. UNEP regional seas report and studies. 6: 111.
  29. Abrajano, T. A., Yan, B. and O’Malley, V. 2003. High molecular weight petrogenic and pyrogenic hydrocarbons in aquatic environments. In Environmental Geochemistry Treatise on Geochemistry. (B. Sherwood Lollar, Ed.). 9: 475–509.
  30. Rocher, V., Azimi, S., Moilleron, R. and Chebbo, G. 2004. Hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the different sewer deposits in the “Le Marais” catchment (Paris, France): Stocks, distributions and origins. Sci. Total Environ. 323: 107- 122.
  31. Berto, D., Cacciatore, F., Ausili, A., Sunseri, G., Luca, G., Bellucci, L. G., Frignani, M., Albertazzi, S. and Giani, M. 2009. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from diffuse sources in coastal sediments of a not industrialised Mediterranean Island. Wat.Air Soil Pollut. 200: 199– 209.
  32. Olaji, E.D., Edema, C.U. and Edema, M.O. 2010. Evaluation of petroleum hydrocarbons in water, fish, and plant samples in Degele and environs in Delta State, Nigeria. Advances in Research. 16(4): 459-         464.
  33. Moon, H.B., Kim, H.S., Choi, M. and Choi, H.G. 2007. Intake and potential health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with seafood consumption in Korea from 2005 to 2007. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 58(1): 214- 221.