BaBiO3 Assisted Photodegradation of Malachite Green Dye Under Visible Light Irradiation: Adsorption and Degradation Kinetics


Department of Chemistry, Govt. P.G. College, Kota 324001, India


Nano sized BaBiO3 is prepared through Pechini method and characterized by SEM, XRD, FTIR, DT-TGA and UV DRS. The kinetic studies of adsorption and degradation phenomena involved in the photocatalytic degradation of Malachite Green dye using a batch reactor under visible light were investigated. Experiments were performed in a suspended BaBiO3 photocatalyst system. The effect of catalyst loading, solution pH and initial dye concentration on dye degradation is investigated. In addition, adsorption experiment is also performed which indicates that adsorption pattern follows Langmuir model. The decomposition of Malachite Green dye follows pseudo first order kinetics and the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism is found to be valid. Different kinetic parameters for adsorption and photocatalytic degradation of dye are also determined.


  1. Galindo, C., P. Jacques and A. Kalt, 2001. Photochemical and Photocatalytic Degradation of an Indigoid Dye: A Case Study of Acid Blue 74 (AB74). Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. A: Chemistry. 141(1): 47-56.
  2. Rao, K. V. K., 1995.Inhibition of DNA Synthesis in Primary Rat Hepatocyte Cultures by Malachite Green: a New Liver Tumor Promoter. Toxicology Letters, 81 (2-3), 107-113.
  3. Alderman, D. J. and R. S. C. Hadley, 1993. Malachite Green: a Pharmacokinetic Study in Rainbow Trout, OncorhynchusMykiss (Walbaum). Journal of Fish Diseases. 16: 297-311.
  4. Culp, S. J., F. A. Beland, R. H. Heflich, R. W. Benson, L. R. Blankenship, P. J. Webb, P. W. Mellick, R. W. Trotter, S. D. Shelton, K. J. Greenlees and M. G. Manjanatha, 2002. Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity in Relation to DNA Adduct Formation in Rats Fed Leucomalachite Green, Mutation Research. 506/507: 55-63.
  5. Schnick, R. A. 1988. The Impetus to Register New Therapeutants for Aquaculture. The Progressive Fish-Culturist, 50(4): 190-196.
  6. Paninutti, L., N. Mouso and F. Forchiassin, 2006. Removal and Degradation of the Fungicide Dye Malachite Green from Aqueous Solution Using the System Wheat Bran-Fomes Sclerodermeus. Enzyme and Microbial Technology. 39: 848-853.
  7. Mittal, A., D. Kaur and J. Mittal, 2009. Batch and Bulk Removal of a Triphenyl Methane Dye, Fast Green FCF, from Wastewater by Wastewater by Adsorption over Waste Materials, Journal Hazardous Materials, 163(2-3): 568-577. 
  8. Chen, C. C.; C. S. Lu, Y. C. Chung, J. L. Jan, 2007. UV Light Induced Photodegradation of Malachite Green on TiO2 Nanoparticles. Journal of HazardousMaterial, 141: 520-528.
  9. Suresh, T. and G. Annadurai, 2013. Synthesis, Characterization and Photocatalytic Degradation of Malachite Green Dye Using Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles. International Journal of Research in Environmental Science and Technology, 3(3): 71-77.
  10. Barakat, M. A., H. Schaeffer, G. Hayes and S. I. Shah, 2004. Photocatalytic Degradation of 2-Chlorophenol by Co-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles.Applied catalysis B: Environmental, 57: 23-30.
  11. Sahoo, C., A.K. Gupta and A. Pal, 2005. Photocatalytic Degradation of Crystal Violet (C.I. Basic Violet 3) on Silver Ion Doped TiO2 . Dyes and Pigments, 66(3): 189-196.
  12. Mrowetz, M. W. Balcerski, A. J. Colussi and M. R. Hofmann, 2004. Oxidative Power of Nitrogen-Doped TiO2PhotocatalystsUnder Visible Illumination. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 108(45): 17269-17273.
  13. Mrowetz, M., W. Balcerski, A. J. Colussi and M. R. Hafmann, 2004. Oxidative Power of Nitrogen Doped TiO2Photocatalysts Under visible Light Illumination. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 108(45): 17269-17273.
  14. Kim, H. G., D. W. Hwang and J. S. Lee, 2004.  An Undoped, Single-phase Oxide Photocatalyst Working under Visible Light. Journal of American Chemical Society, 126: 8912-8913.
  15. Kudo, A., K. Omori and H. Kato, 1999. A Novel Aqueous Process for Preparation of Crystal from Controlled and Highly Crystalline BiVO4 Powder. Journal of American Chemical Society, 121(49): 11459-11467.
  16. Ramchandran, R., M. Sathiya, K. Ramesha, A. S. Prakash, G. Madras and A.K. Shukla, 2011. Photocatalytic Properties of KBiO3 and LiBiO3 with Tunnel Structures. Journal of Chemical Sciences, 123(4): 517-524.
  17. Yu, K., S. Yang, C. Liu, H. Chen, H. Li, C. Sun and S. A. Boyd, 2012. Degradation of Organic Dyes via Bismuth Silver Oxide Initiated Direct Oxidation Coupled with Sodium Bismuthates Based Visible Light Photo Catalysis. Environmental Science and Technology, 46, 7318-7326.
  18. Pechini, M. U. S. Patent No. 3.330.697 (11 July 1967).
  19. Alemi, A., E. Karimpour, H.Shokri. 2008. Preparation, Characterization and Luminescent Properties of Europium Oxide Doped Nano LaMn0.9Zn0.1O3+d by Sol-gel Processing. Bulletin of Material Science, 31: 967-973.
  20. Sverre M., G. Wang, M. A. Einarsrud and T. Grande, 2007. Decomposition and Crystallization of a Sol-gel-derived PbTiO3 Precursor. Journal of American ceramic society, 90(8): 2649-2652.
  21. Kumar, K. V.,  K. Porkodi, A. Selvaganapathi, 2007.Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decomposition of Crystal Violet in UV Illuminated Sol-Gel Derived Nanocrystalline TiO2 Suspension. Dyes and Pigment, 75: 246-249.
  22. Senthilkumaar, S., and K. Porkodi, 2005. Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Decomposition of Crystal Violet UV-illuminated Sol-gel Derived Nanocrystalline TiO2 Suspensions. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 288: 184-189.
  23. Sunarso, J., S. Liu, Y. Lin and J.D. da Costa, 2009. Oxygen Permeation Performance of BaBiO3-δ Ceramic Membranes. Journal of Membrane Science, 344(1): 281-287.
  24. Tang J, Zou Z, Jinhu Y, 2007. Efficient Photocatalysis on BaBiO3 Driven by Visible Light. Journal of Physical ChemistryC, 111(34): 12779-12785.
  25. Zhu, D. and Y. H. Zhang, 2002. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Single-Crystal La0.5Sr0.5MnO3Nanowire UnderMild Conditions.  Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 14(27): 519– 524.
  26. Lee, C. Y., K. Y. Song and R. P. Sperline, 1996. Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Far Infrared Measurements of Ba0.6K0.4BiO3. Korean Journal of Materials Research, 6(6): 555-560.
  27. LAZAREVIĆ, Z. Ž, N. Ž. ROMČEVIĆ, J. D. BOBIĆ, 2009. Study of Ferroelectric BaBi4Ti4O15 Obtained Via Mechanochemical Synthesis. Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials – Rapid Communications, 3(7): 700 -703
  28. Mckay, G. 1982. Adsorption of Dye stuff from Aqueous Solution with Activated Carbon: Equilibrium and batch Contact Time Studies. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 32: 759-772.
  29. Galindo, C., P. Jacques and A. Kalt, 2001. Photooxidation of the Phenylazonaphthol AO20 on TIO2: Kinetic and Mechanistic Investigations. Chemosphere, 45(6-7):997-1005.