Preparation of Chitosan Beads for the Adsorption of Reactive Blue 4 from Aqueous Solutions


1 School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia

2 School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia

3 School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 46150, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia

4 Centralized Analytical Laboratory, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 32610 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia


In the present study, chitosan beads were prepared at different preparation conditions and then applied for adsorption of Reactive Blue 4 (RB4) in a batch adsorption process. Effect of beading parameters such as chitosan concentration, acetic acid concentration and temperature in the removal of RB4 from aqueous solution was investigated. It is found that increasing the concentration of chitosan, acetic acid, and temperature decreased dye removal. The chitosan beads prepared with 2% chitosan and 1% acetic acid concentration at room temperature (30 ± 2 °C) were more suitable for RB4 removal. The beading parameters were found to be effective on the adsorption properties of the prepared adsorbents. Thus, the preparation of chitosan beads at appropriate conditions is a suitable method to improve the anionic dyes adsorption from aqueous solutions.


1.   Vakili, M., M. Rafatullah, B. Salamatinia, A.Z. Abdullah, M.H. Ibrahim,   K.B.   Tan,   Z.   Gholami,   P.   Amouzgar,   2014. Application of chitosan and its derivatives as adsorbents for dye removal from water and wastewater: A review. Carbohydrate Polymers, 113: 115-130.

2.   Vakili, M., M. Rafatullah, M.H. Ibrahim, A.Z. Abdullah, B.

Salamatinia and Z. Gholami, 2014. Oil Palm Biomass as an Adsorbent for Heavy Metals, in Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Springer, 232: 61-88.

3.   Zwain,  H.M.,  M.  Vakili,  I.  Dahlan,  2014.  Waste  material adsorbents for zinc removal from wastewater: A comprehensive review. International Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2014: 1-13.

4.   Vakili, M., M. Rafatullah, M.H. Ibrahim, A.Z. Abdullah, B. Salamatinia, Z. Gholami, 2016. Chitosan hydrogel beads impregnated with hexadecylamine for improved reactive blue 4 adsorption. Carbohydrate Polymers, 137: 139-146.

5.   Vakili, M., M. Rafatullah, B. Salamatinia, M.H. Ibrahim, A.Z. Abdullah, 2015. Elimination of reactive blue 4 from aqueous solutions  using  3-aminopropyl  triethoxysilane  modified chitosan beads. Carbohydrate Polymers, 132: 89-96.

6.   Radnia, H., A.A. Ghoreyshi and H. Younesi, 2011. Isotherm and kinetics of Fe (II) adsorption onto chitosan in a batch process. Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment, 2: 250-257.

7.   Alhwaige, A.A., T. Agag, H. Ishida and S. Qutubuddin, 2013. Biobased  chitosan  hybrid  aerogels  with  superior  adsorption: Role of graphene oxide in CO2 capture. Royal Science of Chemistry Advances, 3: 16011-16020.

8.   Zhou, L., Z. Liu, J. Liu, Q. Huang, 2010. Adsorption of Hg (II) from aqueous solution by ethylenediamine-modified magnetic crosslinking chitosan microspheres. Desalination, 258: 41-47.

9.   Mello,  R.S.,  G.C.  Bedendo,  F.  Nome,  H.D.  Fiedler,  M.C. Laranjeira, 2006. Preparation of chitosan membranes for filtration and concentration of compounds under high pressure process. Polymer Bulletin, 56: 447-454.

10. Zhao, C., X. Liu, M. Nomizu and N. Nishi, 2004. Preparation of  DNA-loaded  polysulfone  microspheres  by  liquid–liquid phase  separation  and  its  functional  utilization.  Journal  of Colloid and Interface Science, 275: 470-476.

11. Zhao, F., B. Yu, Z. Yue, T. Wang, X. Wen, Z. Liu and C. Zhao, 2007. Preparation of porous chitosan gel beads for copper (II) ion adsorption. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 147: 67-73.

12. He, P., S.S. Davis and L. Illum, 1999. Chitosan microspheres prepared    by    spray    drying.    International    Journal    of Pharmaceutics, 187: 53-65.

13. El-Hefian, E.A., E.S. Elgannoudi, A. Mainal and A.H. Yahaya, 2010. Characterization of chitosan in acetic acid: Rheological and thermal studies. Turkish Journal of Chemistry, 34: 47-56.

14. Guibal,   E.,   E.   Touraud   and   J.   Roussy,   2005.   Chitosan interactions with metal ions and dyes: dissolved-state vs. solid-state   application.   World   Journal   of   Microbiology   and Biotechnology, 21: 913-920.

15. Morariu, S., C.-E. Brunchi and M. Bercea, 2012. The Behavior of   Chitosan   in   Solvents   with   Different   Ionic   Strengths. Industrial  &  Engineering  Chemistry  Research,  51:  12959-12966.

16. Savitri,  E.,  S.R.  Juliastuti,  A.  Handaratri  and  A.  Roesyadi, 2014.  Degradation  of  chitosan  by  sonication  in  very-low- concentration acetic acid. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 110: 344-352.

17. Murray,  C.A.  and  J.R.  Dutcher,  2006.  Effect  of  changes  in relative humidity and temperature on ultrathin chitosan films. Biomacromolecules, 7: 3460-3465.