Biological Treatment Processes: Suspended Growth vs. Attached Growth

Authors

1 Faculty of Civil Engineering, The University of Pardisan, Mazandaran, Iran

2 Biotechnology Research Lab., Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol, Iran

Abstract

Microorganisms play an important role in biological treatment processes. Biodegradable organic matter in wastewater would be removed completely by proper microbial consortia. The mixed culture is either generally present in the wastewater, or is introduced to the target wastewater by mixing it with domestic wastewater or sewage sludge. However, pure cultures bioprocess may be used in certain cases for the removal of specific contaminants. In favorable environmental condition, microorganisms are capable of presenting high efficiency in destruction of pollutants. If environmental conditions such as nutrition, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, hydraulic and sludge retention time are suitable and consistent with the nature of process, microorganisms grow and remove organic pollutants through biochemical activities. The aim of this article was to investigate the performance and mechanism of various systems of suspended and attached growth; while the detail of process in different fabricated systems was evaluated. The advantages and disadvantages of NRBC, UASFF, UAPB and normal activated sludge process were discussed. Growth kinetics and COD removal of effluents were also investigated. The result indicated the combination of fluidized and fixed film has created active biogranules which were quite faster and more efficient in treatment of industrial wastewater.

Keywords


1.   Bakhshi, Z., G. Najafpour, E. Kariminezhad, R. Pishgar, N. Mousavi and T. Taghizade, 2011. Growth kinetic models for phenol biodegradation in a batch culture of Pseudomonas putida. Environmental Technology, 32(16): 1835-1841.

2.   Metcalf and Eddy, Wasterwater Eengineering: Treatment, disposal and reuse 2003, New York: McGraw-Hill.

3.   Drosre,   R.L.,   Theory   and   Practice   of   Water   and Wastewater Treatment1997: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

4.   Sadeghpoor, M., B. Hosseini and G.D. Najafpour, 2009. Assessment of Wastewater Treatment Plant's Performance in Amol Industrial Park. American-Eurasian Journal Agriculture and Environmental Science, 5(5): 707-711.

5.   Ebrahimi, A., M. Asadi and G. Najafpour, 2009. Dairy wastewater treatment using three-stage rotating biological contactor (NRBC). International Journal of Engineering, 22(2): 107-114.

6.   Ebrahimi, A., G.D. Najafpour, M. Mohammadi and B. Hashemiyeh, 2010. Biological treatment of whey in an UASFF bioreactor followed a three-stage RBC. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly, 16(2): 175-182.

7.   Najafpour, D.G., P.N. Naidu and A.H. Kamaruddin, 2008. Rotating biological contactor for biological treatment of poultry processing plant wastewater using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  ASEAN  Journal  of  Chemical  Engineering, 2(1): 1-6.

8.   Najafpour,   G.,   A.   Zinatizadeh   and   L.   Lee,   2006. Performance of a three-stage aerobic RBC reactor in food canning wastewater treatment. Biochemical engineering journal, 30(3): 297-302.

9.   AWWA, A.a., Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Sewage. APHA & AWWA, New York222014, Washington, D. C: American Public Health Association (APHA), the American Water Works Association (AWWA), and the Water Environment Federation (WEF), https://www.standardmethods.org/.

10. Amini,   M.,   H.   Younesi,   A.A.Z.   Lorestani   and   G. Najafpour, 2013. Determination of optimum conditions for dairy wastewater treatment in UAASB reactor for removal of nutrients. Bioresource technology, 145: 71-79.

11. Amini,   M.,   H.   Younesi,   G.   Najafpour   and   A.A. Zinatizadeh-Lorestani, 2012. Application of response surface   methodology   for   simultaneous   carbon   and nitrogen (SND) removal from dairy wastewater in batch systems. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 69(6): 962-986.

12. Najafpour,    G.,    Biochemical    engineering    and biotechnologyn. 2nd Ed.2015: Elsevier, Amesterdam.

13. Najafpour, G., B. Hashemiyeh, M. Asadi and M. Ghasemi, 2008. Biological treatment of dairy wastewater in an upflow anaerobic sludge-fixed film bioreactor. American Eurasian   Journal   of   Agriculture   and   Environmental Sciences, 4: 251-257.

14. Eckenfelder, W.W., Industrial water pollution control, Third ed2000, New York: McGraw-Hill.

15. Najafpour, G., M. Komeili, M. Tajallipour and M. Asadi, 2010. Bioconversion of cheese whey to methane in an upflow anaerobic packed bed bioreactor. Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly, 24(1): 111-117.

16. Pishgar, R., G.D. Najafpour, B.N. Neya, N. Mousavi and Z. Bakhshi, 2014. Effects of organic loading rate and hydraulic   retention   time   on   treatment   of   phenolic wastewater  in  an  anaerobic  immobilized  fluidized  bed reactor.   Journal   of   Environmental   Engineering   and Landscape Management, 22(1): 40-49.

17. Zinatizadeh, A., A. Mohamed, G. Najafpour, M.H. Isa and H. Nasrollahzadeh, 2006. Kinetic evaluation of palm oil mill effluent digestion in a high rate up-flow anaerobic sludge fixed film bioreactor. Process biochemistry, 41(5): 1038-1046.

18. Anderson, G., B. Kasapgil and O. Ince, 1994. Comparison of porous and non-porous media in upflow anaerobic filters when treating dairy wastewater. Water Research, 28(7): 1619-1624.

19. Mansouri,  A.,  A.  Zinatizadeh  and  A.  Akhbari,  2014. Kinetic Evaluation of Simultaneous CNP Removal in an up-Flow Aerobic/Anoxic Sludge Fixed Film (UAASFF) Bioreactor.  Iranica  Journal  of  Energy  &  Environment (IJEE), 5(3): 323-336.

20. Saghafi, S., Z. Bakhshi, G.D. Najafpour, E. Kariminezhad and H.A. Rad, 2010. Biodegradation of Toluene and Xylene  in  an  UAPB  Bioreactor  with  Fixed  Film  of Pseudomonas   putida.   American-Eurasian   Journal   of Agricalture & Environment Science, 9(1): 801-807.

21. Najafpour,  G.,  M.  Tajallipour,  M.  Komeili  and  M. Mohammadi,   2009.   Kinetic   model   for   an   up-flow anaerobic   packed   bed   bioreactor:   Dairy   wastewater treatment. African Journal of Biotechnology, 8(15): 3590-3596.

22. Tehrani, N.S., G.D. Najafpour, M. Rahimnejad and H. Attar, 2015. Performance of up flow anaerobic sludge fixed film bioreactor for the treatment of high organic load and biogas production of cheese whey wastewater. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly, (00): 18-18.

23. Borja, R., C. Banks and Z. Wang, 1995. Performance of a hybrid anaerobic reactor, combining a sludge blanket and a  filter,  treating  slaughterhouse  wastewater.  Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 43(2): 351-357.

24. Borja, R., C.J. Banks, Z. Wang and A. Mancha, 1998. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater using a combination sludge blanket and filter arrangement in a single reactor. Bioresource technology, 65(1): 125-133.

25. Surampalli, R.Y. and E.R. Baumann, 1995. Sludge production in rotating biological contactors with supplemental   aeration   and   an   enlarged   first   stage. Bioresource technology, 54(3): 297-304.

26. Khademi, M., G. Najafpour, B. Nia, A. Zinatizadeh and R. Kalantary, 2009. Biological Treatment of Antibiotic Plant Effluent in an UASFF Bioreactor. World Appl. Sci. J, 5: 1-8.

27. Zinatizadeh, A., A. Mohamed, G. Najafpour, M. Hasnain Isa and H. Nasrollahzadeh, 2006. Kinetic evaluation of palm oil mill effluent digestion in a high rate up-flow anaerobic sludge fixed film bioreactor. Process Biochemistry, 41(5): 1038-1046.

28. Firozjaee, T.T., G.D. Najafpour, A. Asgari, Z. Bakhshi, R. Pishgar and N. Mousavi. Phenol Biodegradation Kinetics in anAnaerobic Batch Reactor. in Reston, VA: ASCE, Proceedings of the 2011 World Environmental and Water Resources Congress; May 22. 26, 2011, Palm Springs, California| d 20110000. 2011. American Society of Civil Engineers.

29. Pishgar, R., G. Najafpour, B.N. Neya, N. Mousavi and Z. Bakhshi, 2011. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Phenol: Comparative  Study  of  Free  and  Immobilized  Growth. Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE), 2(4): 348-355.

30. Pishgar, R., G. Najafpour, N. Mousavi, Z. Bakhshi and M. Khorrami, 2012. Phenol biodegradation kinetics in the presence of supplimentary substrate. International Journal of Engineering, 25(3): 181-191.

31. Livingston, A.G. and H.A. Chase, 2004. Modeling phenol degradation in a fluidized•bed bioreactor. AIChE journal, 35(12): 1980-1992.

32. Metcalf, E. and H. Eddy, Wastewater engineering: treatment, disposal, reuse, 2003, McGraw Hill, Boston, Mass.

33. Hajia,  M.S.,  M.  Sadeghpour,  M.  Hadipour  and  G. Najafpour, 2012. A Comparison of Vermi and Aerobic Technologies Applied to Manage Textile Industrial Sludge and  Kitchen  Wastes.  World  Applied  Sciences  Journal, 19(6): 806-810.

34. Hosseini, B., N.G. Darzi, M. Sadeghpour and M. Asadi, 2008. The effect of the sludge recycle ratio in an activated sludge system for the treatment of Amol's industrial park wastewater. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly, 14(3): 173-180.

35. Zare, H., G. Najafpour, H. Heydarzadeh, M. Rahimnejad and A. Tardast, 2012. Performance and Kinetic Evaluation of  Ethyl  Acetate  Biodegradation  in  a  Biofilter  Using Pseudomonas Putida. Bioresource Technology 123: 419-423.

36. Najafpour, G., R. Pisgar, N. Mousavi, Z. Bakhshi and M. Khorami;,   2012.   Phenol   Biodegradation   Kinetics   in Presence   of   Supplementary   Substrate.   International Journal  of  Engineering,  Transaction  B:  Applications, 25(3): 181-192.

37. Mousavi, N., G.D. Nnajafpour, Z. Bakhshi and R. Pishgar, 2011. Performance anaerobic baffled reactor in biodegradation of phenol. Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE), 2(3): 229-234.

38. Bakhshi, Z., G. Najafpour, N.B. Navayi, E. Kariminezhad, R. Pishgar and N. Moosavi, 2011. Recovery of UAPB from high organic load during startup for phenolic wastewater treatment. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly, 17(4): 517-524.