Biodiesel Production from Amygdalus scoparia Using KOH/Al2O3 Catalyst: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Chemistry, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 School of Chemical Petroleum and Gas Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran


The transesterification of Amygdalus scoparia oil to biodiesel was performed and examined through the electrolysis method in the presence of KOH/Al2O3 as a heterogeneous catalyst at room temperature. A KOH/Al2O3 as solid base catalyst was prepared through the impregnation of Al2O3 with KOH solution (concentration of 25g in 100 mL deionized water). The catalyst was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The transesterification key variables such as reaction time, methanol to oil molar ratio, and catalyst weight were optimized by applying the central composite design (CCD) approach. The maximum yield of 94% was obtained at the methanol to oil ratio of 10:1, catalyst weight of 1.6 wt/v%, voltage of 10 V, a reaction time of 2.30 h, 10 wt% acetone at room temperature (25 ᵒC). The characterizations of Amygdalus scoparia oil and biodiesel were specified using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analyses.


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