Numerical Investigation of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Engine Performance under Fuel Aggregation Collision to Piston Bowl Rim Edge Situation

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran


To better homogenize the mixture of fuel and air in the combustion chamber and to enhance the controllability of ignition timing in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) engines, controlling the start of injection (SOI) timing can be essential. By changing the SOI timing, at some specific crank angles (CAs), the fuel can impact the edge of the piston bowl and create some difficulties. In this research, initially, efforts are made to recognize the range of SOI timing in which this collision process takes place (in the range of 44-54° bTDC), then, performance and the emission levels of the engine were evaluated in the beginning and end of this interval. The findings suggest that the nitrogen oxides emissions and the maximum in-cylinder mean pressure are higher in SOI of 44° bTDC, as compared to those in the SOI timing of 54°bTDC, although the latter has higher ignition delay and unburnt hydrocarbon (UHC) emission. Moreover, some evaluations were carried out to examine how the temperature of the fuel-air mixture can affect the performance of the engine in this specific range. It was found that as the IVC temperature increases, it rises the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), in-cylinder pressure, and NOx emission.


1.     Chen, G., Di, L., Zhang, Q., Zheng, Z. and Zhang, W. 2015. “Effects of 2,5-dimethylfuran fuel properties coupling with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) on combustion and emission characteristics in common-rail diesel engines.” Energy, 93, pp.284–293.
2.     Manieniyan, V., Velumani, V., Senthilkumar, R. and Sivaprakasam, S. 2021. “Effect of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) in diesel engine with multi-walled carbon nanotubes and vegetable oil refinery waste as biodiesel.” Fuel, 288, pp.119689.
3.     Solouk, A., Shakiba-Herfeh, M., Arora, J. and Shahbakhti, M. 2018. “Fuel consumption assessment of an electrified powertrain with a multi-mode high-efficiency engine in various levels of hybridization.” Energy Conversion and Management, 155, pp.100–115.
4.     Bastawissi, H. A. E. D., Elkelawy, M., Panchal, H. and Kumar Sadasivuni, K. 2019. “Optimization of the multi-carburant dose as an energy source for the application of the HCCI engine.” Fuel, 253, pp.15–24.
5.     Kokjohn, S. L., Musculus, M. P. B. and Reitz, R. D. 2015. “Evaluating temperature and fuel stratification for heat-release rate control in a reactivity-controlled compression-ignition engine using optical diagnostics and chemical kinetics modeling.” Combustion and Flame, 162(6), pp.2729–2742.
6.     Singh, A. P., Bajpai, N. and Agarwal, A. K. 2018. “Combustion mode switching characteristics of a medium-duty engine operated in compression ignition/PCCI combustion modes.” Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Transactions of the ASME, 140(9), pp.1–11.
7.     Kokjohn, S. L., Hanson, R. M., Splitter, D. A. and Reitz, R. D. 2010. “Experiments and modeling of dual-fuel HCCI and PCCI combustion using in-cylinder fuel blending.” SAE International Journal of Engines, 2(2), pp.24–39.
8.     Hanson, R. M., Kokjohn, S. L., Splitter, D. A. and Reitz, R. D. 2010. “An experimental investigation of fuel reactivity controlled PCCI combustion in a heavy-duty engine.” SAE International Journal of Engines, 3(1), pp.700–716.
9.     Molina, S., García, A., Pastor, J. M., Belarte, E. and Balloul, I. 2015. “Operating range extension of RCCI combustion concept from low to full load in a heavy-duty engine.” Applied Energy, 143, pp.211–227.
10.   Ghaedi, A., Shafaghat, R., Jahanian, O. and Motallebi Hasankola, S. S. 2020. “Comparing the performance of a CI engine after replacing the mechanical injector with a common rail solenoid injector.” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 139(4), pp.2475–2485.
11.   Motallebi Hasankola, S. S., Shafaghat, R., Jahanian, O. and Nikzadfar, K. 2020. “An experimental investigation of the injection timing effect on the combustion phasing and emissions in reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine.” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 139(4), pp.2509–2516.
12.   Hariharan, D., Gainey, B., Yan, Z., Mamalis, S. and Lawler, B. 2019. “Experimental study of the effect of start of injection and blend ratio on single fuel reformate RCCI.” Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 142(8). Retrieved from
13.   Nazemi, M. and Shahbakhti, M. 2016. “Modeling and analysis of fuel injection parameters for combustion and performance of an RCCI engine.” Applied Energy, 165, pp.135–150.
14.   Wannatong, K., Akarapanyavit, N., Siengsanorh, S. and Chanchaona, S. 2007. “Combustion and knock characteristics of natural gas diesel dual fuel engine.” In SAE Technical Papers (pp. 1–6). SAE International.
15.   Fakhari, A. H., Shafaghat, R., Jahanian, O., Ezoji, H. and Motallebi Hasankola, S. S. 2020. “Numerical simulation of natural gas/diesel dual-fuel engine for investigation of performance and emission.” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 139(4), pp.2455–2464.
16.   Motallebi Hasankola, S. S., Shafaghat, R., Jahanian, O., Talesh Amiri, S. and Shooghi, M. 2020. “Numerical investigation of the effects of inlet valve closing temperature and exhaust gas recirculation on the performance and emissions of an RCCI engine.” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 139(4), pp.2465–2474.
17.   Yousefi, A., Guo, H. and Birouk, M. 2018. “An experimental and numerical study on diesel injection split of a natural gas/diesel dual-fuel engine at a low engine load.” Fuel, 212, pp.332–346.
18.   AVL FIRE User Manual, CFD-Solver_v2011_CFD-Solver.