Experimental Analysis of the Thermal Performance of a Metal Fired-wood Oven

Document Type: Research Note


1 Institut de Recherche en Sciences Appliquées et Technologies (IRSAT), Département Energie, 03 BP 7047 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso

2 Université de Lomé, GPTE-LES, BP 1515, Lomé, Togo

3 Laboratoire d’Energies Thermiques Renouvelables (LETRE), Université Joseph KI-ZERBO, 03 BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03, Burkina Faso


This work is devoted to the evaluation of the performance of a typical fired-wood oven commonly used in the rotisserie sector in Burkina Faso. The methodology used is based on the energy balance of the oven. For this purpose, 20 liters of water were heated up to 90 °C. The difference in water temperature at the start and at the end of the experiment makes it possible to calculate the amount of energy consumed by the load. The temperatures of the walls as well as that of the ambient were recorded to evaluate the losses by convection towards the environment. The losses through the fumes have been estimated from the energy balance. The results show that the dominant losses are those of fumes (about 55 % of the energy consumed). The losses through the walls are relatively large (26 %). The efficiency of the oven is around 19 %, which is very low. These results show that these equipment are inefficient and contribute significantly to the waste of wood at the national level.


1.    Sawadogo, G. L., Igo, S. W., Compaore, A., Ouedraogo, D., Chesneau, X., & Zeghmati, B., 2020, Experimental and Numerical Study of Energy Losses in a Barbecue Oven in Burkina Faso, Open Journal of Energy Efficiency, 9(1): 31–52. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojee.2020.91003
2.    Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development (Burkina Faso), REDD preparation plan, 2012.
3.    National Institute of Statistics and Demography (INSD), 2018 statistical yearbook, 2018.
4.    Arevalo, J., 2016, Improving woodfuel governance in Burkina Faso: The experts’ assessment, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 57: 1398-1408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.178
5.    Awojobi, O. N., & Tetteh, J., 2017, The impacts of climate change in Africa: a review of the scientific literature, Journal of International Academic Research for Multidisciplinary, 5(11): 39–52. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321838838
6.    Chersich, M., Wright, C., Venter, F., Rees, H., Scorgie, F., & Erasmus, B., 2018, Impacts of Climate Change on Health and Wellbeing in South Africa, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(9): 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091884
7.    Pyhälä, A., Fernández-Llamazares, Á., Lehvävirta, H., Byg, A., Ruiz-Mallén, I., Salpeteur, M., & Thornton, T. F., 2016, Global environmental change: Local perceptions, understandings, and explanations, Ecology and Society, 21(3): 1–27. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-08482-210325
8.    Chafe, Z. A., Brauer, M., Klimont, Z., Van Dingenen, R., Mehta, S., Rao, S., … Smith, K. R., 2014, Household Cooking with Solid Fuels Contributes to Ambient PM 2.5 Air Pollution and the Burden of Disease, Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(12): 1314–1320. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206340
9.    Johnson, M., Lam, N., Brant, S., Gray, C., & Pennise, D., 2011, Modeling indoor air pollution from cookstove emissions in developing countries using a Monte Carlo single-box model, Atmospheric Environment, 45(19): 3237–3243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.03.044
10. Adhikari, S., Mahapatra, P. S., Pokheral, C. P., & Puppala, S. P., 2020, Cookstove Smoke Impact on Ambient Air Quality and Probable Consequences for Human Health in Rural Locations of Southern Nepal, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(550): 1–21. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020550
11. Butt, E. W., Rap, A., Schmidt, A., Scott, C. E., Pringle, K. J., Reddington, C. L., Spracklen, D. V., 2016, The impact of residential combustion emissions on atmospheric aerosol, human health, and climate, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 16(2): 873–905. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-873-2016
12. Smith, K. R., Samet, J. M., Romieu, I., & Bruce, N., 2000, Indoor air pollution in developing countries and acute lower respiratory infections in children, Thorax, 55(6): 518–532. https://doi.org/10.1136/thorax.55.6.518
13. Zhang, X., Chen, X., & Zhang, X., 2018, The impact of exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(37): 9193–9197. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1809474115
14. Sharma, D., & Jain, S., 2019, Impact of intervention of biomass cookstove technologies and kitchen characteristics on indoor air quality and human exposure in rural settings of India, Environment International, 123: 240–255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.11.059
15. Balakrishnan, K., Sambandam, S., Ghosh, S., Mukhopadhyay, K., Vaswani, M., Arora, N. K., Smith, K. R., 2015, Household air pollution exposures of pregnant women receiving advanced combustion cookstoves in India: Implications for intervention, Annals of Global Health, 81(3): 375–385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aogh.2015.08.009
16. World Health Organization, Burden of disease from the joint effects of household and ambient Air pollution for 2016, 2018.
17. EPA, Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions, 2016.
18. Zhang, H., & Wang, Z., 2011, Advances in the study of black carbon effects on climate, Advances in Climate Change Research, 2(1): 23–30. https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1248.2011.00023
19. Ramanathan, V., & Carmichael, G., 2008, Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon, Nature Geoscience, 1: 221–227. https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo156
20. Schmidt, C. W., 2011, Black Carbon: The Dark Horse of Climate Change Drivers, Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(4): 172–175. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.119-a172
21. Kumar, R. P., Pandey, A. K., & Kumar, K., 2017, A Review on the Atmospheric Non Methane Hydrocarbons (NMHCs) Study in India, Current World Environment, 12(2): 278–287. https://doi.org/10.12944/CWE.12.2.11
22. Durand, A., Barthel, C., Volkmer, H., & Salow, S., 2013, What users can save with energy-efficient stoves and ovens with energy-efficient cooking stoves and ovens,  Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, 1–30. Retrieved from https://energypedia.info/images/2/26/Bigee_cookingstoves_user_savings.pdf
23. Global alliance for clean cookstoves, Handbook for biomass cookstove research, design and development : A pratiacl guide to implementing recent advances, Massachusetts Institute of Technology D-lab, 2017.
24. Bantu, A. A., Nuwagaba, G., Kizza, S., & Turinayo, Y. K., 2018, Design of an Improved Cooking Stove Using High Density Heated Rocks and Heat Retaining Techniques, Journal of Renewable Energy, 2018: 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9620103
25. Kuhe, A., Iortyer, H. A., & Iortsor, A., 2014, Performance of Clay Wood Cook Stove: An Analysis of Cost and Fuel Savings, Journal of Technology Innovations in Renewable Energy, 3(3): 94–98. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.6000/1929-6002.2014.03.03.2
26. Wilson, D. L., Talancon, D. R., Winslow, R. L., Linares, X., & Gadgil, A. J., 2016, Avoided emissions of a fuel-efficient biomass cookstove dwarf embodied emissions, Development Engineering, 1: 45–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.deveng.2016.01.001
27. Chan, S., Sasaki, N., & Ninomiya, H., 2015, Carbon emission reductions by substitution of improved cookstoves and cattle mosquito nets in a forest-dependent community, Global Ecology and Conservation, 4: 434–444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2015.08.007
28. Whiteman, A., Li, Y., Fornari, E., & Animon, I., 2018, The potential for improved cookstoves to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, International Forestry Review, 20(4): 559–570. https://doi.org/10.1505/146554818825240683
29. Sharma, M., & Dasappa, S., 2017, Emission reduction potentials of improved cookstoves and their issues in adoption: An Indian outlook, Journal of Environmental Management, 4(1): 442-453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.09.018
30. Ochieng, C. A., Tonne, C., & Vardoulakis, S., 2013, A comparison of fuel use between a low cost, improved wood stove and traditional three-stone stove in rural Kenya, Biomass and Bioenergy, 58: 258–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.07.017
31. Adams, M., Transmission de la chaleur, Dunod, Paris, 1964.
32.  Taylor, R.P.I., 2009. The uses of laboratory testing of biomass cookstoves and the shortcomings of the dominant US protocol [Thesis]. Ames (IA): Iowa State University.