Synergy of Granular Activated Carbon and Anaerobic Mixed Culture in Phenol Bioremediation of Aqueous Solution

Document Type: Original Article

Authors

Department of Environmental Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran

Abstract

The present study focused on the synergistic effects bioremediation of phenol in aqueous solution using combination of anaerobic mixed culture and Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) as a biological GAC (BGAC). Meanwhile, the effect of contact time and various phenol concentrations on adsorption and biosorption process investigated. The phenol concentration was analyzed using UV/Vis spectrophotometer. The morphology and structure of two adsorbents (GAC and BGAC) were characterized by FESEM and BET specific surface area analysis. The batch experiments using mixed bacterial culture, isolated from wood and paper factory wastewater, were adapted to high concentrations of phenol and employed in order to evaluate the tolerance and biosorption capability of microorganisms for phenol biodegradation. The synergetic effect of phenol removal using combination of GAC with an anaerobic biofilm indicated that the removal efficiency for concentration of 700, 800, and 1000 mg/l at initial stages increased to 4, 10, and 12%, respectively and while by increment of the retention time did not shown significant impact on the removal efficiency. These results conducted both desorption of adsorbates due to biotransformation in the aqueous solution and direct assimilation of adsorbates on GAC by the microorganism’s biofilm. The adsorption data were fitted with pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models and it was found that the pseudo-second-order model explains the adsorption kinetics more efficiently. The compatibility of the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models to equilibrium data were investigated. In fact, the Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitting isotherm.

Keywords


1.    Dakhil, I. H., 2013, Removal of Phenol from Industrial Wastewater Using Sawdust Monitoring of environmental pollutants View project Removal of Phenol from Industrial Wastewater Using Sawdust, Research Inventy: International Journal of Engineering and Science, 3(1): 2319–6483. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/297209123
2.    Sun, X., Wang, C., Li, Y., Wang, W., & Wei, J., 2015, Treatment of phenolic wastewater by combined UF and NF/RO processes, Desalination, 355: 68–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2014.10.018
3.    Veeresh, G. S., Kumar, P., & Mehrotra, I., 2005, Treatment of phenol and cresols in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process: A review, Water Research, 39(1): 154–170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2004.07.028
4.    Ahmaruzzaman, M., & Sharma, D. K., 2005, Adsorption of phenols from wastewater, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 287(1): 14–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2005.01.075
5.    Chhonkar, P. K., Datta, S. P., Joshi, H. C., & Pathak, H., 2000, Impact of Industrial Effluents on Soil Health and Agriculture - Indian Experience: Part I - Distillery and Paper Mill Effluents, Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research, 59(5): 350–361. Retrieved from http://nopr.niscair.res.in/handle/123456789/17773
6.    Mukherjee, S., Basak, B., Bhunia, B., Dey, A., & Mondal, B., 2013, November 7, Potential use of polyphenol oxidases (PPO) in the bioremediation of phenolic contaminants containing industrial wastewater, Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, 12: 61-73. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11157-012-9302-y
7.    Peings, V., Frayret, J., & Pigot, T., 2015, Mechanism for the oxidation of phenol by sulfatoferrate(VI): Comparison with various oxidants, Journal of Environmental Management, 157: 287–296. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.04.004
8.    Nicell, J. A., Bewtra, J. K., Biswas, N., & Taylor, E., 1993, Reactor development for peroxidase catalyzed polymerization and precipitation of phenols from wastewater, Water Research, 27(11): 1629–1639. https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(93)90127-4
9.    Palma, M. S. A., Paiva, J. L., Zilli, M., & Converti, A., 2007, Batch phenol removal from methyl isobutyl ketone by liquid-liquid extraction with chemical reaction, Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 46(8): 764–768. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2006.10.003
10. Kujawski, W., Warszawski, A., Ratajczak, W., Porȩbski, T., Capała, W., & Ostrowska, I., 2004, Application of pervaporation and adsorption to the phenol removal from wastewater, Separation and Purification Technology, 40(2): 123–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2004.01.013
11. Wu, Y., Tian, G., Tan, H., & Fu, X., 2013, Pervaporation of phenol wastewater with PVDF-PU blend membrane, Desalination and Water Treatment, 51(25–27): 5311–5318. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2013.768789
12. El-Ashtoukhy, E.-S. Z., El-Taweel, Y. A., Abdelwahab, O., & Nassef, E. M., 2013, Treatment of Petrochemical Wastewater Containing Phenolic Compounds by Electrocoagulation Using a Fixed Bed Electrochemical Reactor, International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 8(2013): 1534–1550. Retrieved from http://www.electrochemsci.org/papers/vol8/80101534.pdf
13. Park, H. S., Koduru, J. R., Choo, K. H., & Lee, B., 2015, Activated carbons impregnated with iron oxide nanoparticles for enhanced removal of bisphenol A and natural organic matter, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 286: 315–324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.11.012
14. Carvajal-Bernal, A. M., Gómez, F., Giraldo, L., & Moreno-Piraján, J. C., 2015, Chemical modification of activated carbons and its effect on the adsorption of phenolic compounds, Ingeniería y Competitividad, 17(1): 109–119. Retrieved from http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=291339265009
15. Mohammad, Y. S., Shaibu-imodagbe, E. M., Igboro, S. B., Giwa, A., & Okuofu, C. A., 2014, Application of low-cost adsorbent in the treatment of Samaru stream water, Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, 20(4): 61–65. https://doi.org/10.29081/jesr.v20i4.54
16. Mukherjee, S., Kumar, S., Misra, A. K., & Fan, M., 2007, Removal of phenols from water environment by activated carbon, bagasse ash and wood charcoal, Chemical Engineering Journal, 129(1–3): 133–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2006.10.030
17. Devaanshi Jagwani, & Pranita Joshi, 2014, Deportation of toxic phenol from aqueous system by wheat husk, International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences, 4(2): 58–64. Retrieved from https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20143220265
18. Mohammadtaghi Vakili, Mohd Rafatullah, M. Hakimi Ibrahim, & Ahmad Zuhairi Abdullah, 2016, Preparation of Chitosan Beads for the Adsorption of Reactive Blue 4 from Aqueous Solutions, Iranian (Iranica) journal of energy and environment, 7(2): 124–128. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.ijee.2016.07.02.06
19. Radnia, H., Asghar Ghoreyshi, A., & Younesi, H., 2011, Isotherm and Kinetics of Fe(II) Adsorption onto Chitosan in a Batch Process, Iranian (Iranica) Journal of Energy & Environment, 2(3): 250–257. https://doi.org/10.5829/idosi.ijee.2011.02.03.1837
20. Tor, A., Cengeloglu, Y., Aydin, M. E., & Ersoz, M., 2006, Removal of phenol from aqueous phase by using neutralized red mud, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 300(2): 498–503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2006.04.054
21. Gupta, V. K., Sharma, S., Yadav, I. S., & Mohan, D., 1998, Utilization of bagasse fly ash generated in the sugar industry for the removal and recovery of phenol and p-nitrophenol from wastewater, Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 71(2): 180–186. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4660(199802)71:23.0.CO;2-I
22. Viraraghavan, T., & De Maria Alfaro, F., 1998, Adsorption of phenol from wastewater by peat, fly ash and bentonite, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 57(1–3): 59–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(97)00062-9
23. Yen, C., & Singer, P. C., 1984, Competitive Adsorption of Phenols on Activated Carbon, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 110(5): 976–989. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9372(1984)110:5(976)
24. Çeçen, F., & Aktaş, Ö., 2011, Activated Carbon for Water and Wastewater Treatment: Integration of Adsorption and Biological Treatment, Activated Carbon for Water and Wastewater Treatment: Integration of Adsorption and Biological Treatment. Wiley-VCH Verlag GMBH & Co. KGaA. https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527639441
25. Piai, L., Blokland, M., van der Wal, A., & Langenhoff, A., 2020, Biodegradation and adsorption of micropollutants by biological activated carbon from a drinking water production plant, Journal of Hazardous Materials, 388: 122028. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122028
26. Association APH, Association AWW, Federation WPC, Federation WE (1915) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater: American Public Health Association.
27. Ho, Y. S., & McKay, G., 1998, Sorption of dye from aqueous solution by peat, Chemical Engineering Journal, 70(2): 115–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0923-0467(98)00076-1
28. Ho, Y. S., & McKay, G., 1999, Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes, Process Biochemistry, 34(5): 451–465. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(98)00112-5
29. HMF Freundlich, 1906, Over the adsorption in solution, The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 57: 385–471.
30. Langmuir, I., 1916, The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids. Part I. Solids, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 38(11): 2221–2295. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja02268a002
31. Hall, K. R., Eagleton, L. C., Acrivos, A., & Vermeulen, T., 1966, Pore- and solid-diffusion kinetics in fixed-bed adsorption under constant-pattern conditions, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals, 5(2): 212–223. https://doi.org/10.1021/i160018a011
32. Rouquerol, J., Avnir, D., Fairbridge, C. W., Everett, D. H., Haynes, J. M., Pernicone, N., … Unger, K. K., 1994, Recommendations for the characterization of porous solids (Technical Report), Pure and Applied Chemistry, 66(8): 1739–1758. https://doi.org/10.1351/pac199466081739
33. Namasivayam, C., & Kavitha, D., 2002, Removal of Congo Red from water by adsorption onto activated carbon prepared from coir pith, an agricultural solid waste, Dyes and Pigments, 54(1): 47–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0143-7208(02)00025-6