Impact Energy of Weld Metal in CK45 Carbon Steel

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Materials Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran


Due to high joint efficiency, welding is widely used to join materials. Today, there are many types of welding procedures in different manufacturing industries. Among welding procedures, Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) is a versatile process due to its high flexibility. In this process, arc voltage, welding current, and welding speed are the main variables which can strongly affect the mechanical properties of the weld metal. Based on the available literature, many research works have been conducted on the GMAW process but there is still little experimental research on impact energy of the weld metal specifically in medium-carbon steels. Impact energy of the weld metal is extremely important particulary for the structures subjected to impact loads. Hence, the present paper is conducted to reveal the effect of GMAW variables on impact energy of the weld metal in CK45 carbon steel. The results of this paper indicated that the heat input value and weld bead size in different welding conditions are main factors which affect the impact energy of the weld metal.


1. Hasan, A.S., Ali, O.M. and Alsaffawi, A.M., 2018. Effect of Welding Current on Weldments Properties in MIG and TIG Welding. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7(4.37): 192-197.
2. Zhao, D., Zhao, K., Ren, D. and Guo, X., 2017. Ultrasonic welding of magnesium–titanium dissimilar metals: A study on influences of welding parameters on mechanical property by experimentation and artificial neural network. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 139(3).
3. Huang, L., Wu, D., Hua, X., Liu, S., Jiang, Z., Li, F., Wang, H. and Shi, S., 2018. Effect of the welding direction on the microstructural characterization in fiber laser-GMAW hybrid welding of 5083 aluminum alloy. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 31: 514-522.
4. Habibi, M., Hashemi, R., Tafti, M.F. and Assempour, A., 2018. Experimental investigation of mechanical properties, formability and forming limit diagrams for tailor-welded blanks produced by friction stir welding. Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 31: 310-323.
5. Yang, J., Yu, Z., Li, Y., Zhang, H. and Zhou, N., 2018. Laser welding/brazing of 5182 aluminium alloy to ZEK100 magnesium alloy using a nickel interlayer. Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 23(7): 543-550.
6. Kumar, V., Hussain, M., Raza, M.S., Das, A.K. and Singh, N.K., 2017. Fiber laser welding of thin nickel sheets in air and water medium. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 42(5): 1765-1773.
7. Krasnowski, K., 2014. Experimental study of FSW t-joints of EN-AW 6082-T6 and their behaviour under static loads. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 39(12): 9083-9092.
8. Nuraini, A.A., Zainal, A.S. and Hanim, M.A., 2014. The effects of welding parameters on butt joints using robotic gas metal arc welding. Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Sciences, 6: 988-994.
9. Texier, D., Atmani, F., Bocher, P., Nadeau, F., Chen, J., Zedan, Y., Vanderesse, N. and Demers, V., 2018. Fatigue performances of FSW and GMAW aluminum alloys welded joints: Competition between microstructural and structural-contact-fretting crack initiation. International Journal of Fatigue, 116: 220-233.
10. Alam, N., Jarvis, B.L., Harris, D. and Soltan, A., 2002. Laser cladding for repair of engineering components. Australasian welding journal. 47(2): 38-47.
11. Houldcroft, P.D., 1989. Submerged Arc Welding Abington Publishers.
12. Murugan, N. and Parmar, R.S., 1997. Stainless steel cladding deposited by automatic gas metal arc welding. Welding Journal-Including Welding Research Supplement, 76(10): 391-400.
13. Kim, I.S., Kwon, W.H. and Park, C.E., 1996. The effects of welding process parameters on weld bead width in GMAW processes. Journal of KWS (Korea Weld Society), 14(4): 204-213.
14. Sailender, M., Chandra Mohan Reddy, G., and Venkatesh, S., 2016. Influences of Process Parameters on Heat Affected Zone in Submerged Arc Welding of Low Carbon Steel. American Journal of Materials Science, 6(4A): 102-108.
15. Singh, R., 2016. Classification of Steels, In: Applied welding engineering: processes, codes, and standards. Butterworth-Heinemann. pp.57-64.
16. Saba, N., Jawaid, M. and Sultan, M.T.H., 2019. An overview of mechanical and physical testing of composite materials. In Mechanical and Physical Testing of Biocomposites, Fibre-Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites. Woodhead Publishing. pp. 1-12.
17. Stanya, A., Franklin, J.E. and Dickinson, D.W., Republic Steel Corp, 1982. Control of welding energy flux density. U.S. Patent 4,343,980.
18. Pinto-Lopera, J.E., ST Motta, J.M. and Absi Alfaro, S.C., 2016. Realtime measurement of width and height of weld beads in GMAW processes. Sensors, 16(1500): 1-14.
19. Funderburk, R.S., 1999. Key concepts in welding engineering. Welding Innovation, 16(1): 8-11.