Energy Saving through Connection of Sunken Garden with Nature and Passive Cooling in Traditional Buildings of Hot and Dry Climate of Iran

Document Type : Technical Note


Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran


Sunken garden is one of the elements of traditional Iranian architecture, formed with the attitude of conservation of environment and organizing a meaningful relationship with its surroundings. Many studies have been conducted to identify this element of traditional architecture and its functions, endorsing its valuable and considerable properties in respect for nature, harmony with the aims of sustainable development and energy conservation. One of the most important functions of this elements is providing cooling needs for residents in the hot summer months of desert areas of Iran without the need of fossil fuels consuming. The current article, as a descriptive-analytic study, aimed at a more comprehensive knowledge of passive cooling in sunken garden. To reach this goal, passive cooling and its types and sunken garden were first introduced. Then, their relationship with natural elements and the role of each element in achieving passive cooling in sunken garden were evaluated. The results revealed that sunken garden has been linked with natural elements in a way which cools this underground space of traditional buildings of hot and dry climate of Iran through heat prevention, heat modulation and heat dissipation.